In late 2006/early 2007, the Cultural Research Centre (CRC), with financial and technical support from the Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda, carried out research in Iganga and Namutumba districts to gauge the impact of the introduction of the local language as a medium of instruction in ‘pilot’ lower primary school classes. Our research was in response to new circumstances in Uganda’s education sector, with Government introducing teaching in local languages in lower primary classes from February 2007. This was accompanied by a “thematic curriculum”, to develop early childhood skills that are fundamental to continuing educational performance in numeracy, literacy and life skills. This was a departure from the earlier emphasis on the acquisition of facts in various subjects in primary schools, mostly focusing on recall, and mostly taught in English. This nationwide policy followed a pilot initiative in four districts, including Iganga (later split into Iganga and parts of Namutumba districts), where 15 pilot schools had been chosen. Instruction in Lusoga in Primary 1 to 3 classes started there in 2005, following a period of teacher training. From the outset however, parents, teachers, pupils and others raised questions: was teaching in the local language possible, and would it make a positive difference to learning?