The pyrgine genus Porphyrogenes Watson, 1893 (Hesperiidae) is discussed, especially as it occurs in central Rondônia, Brazil. Of eleven species of Porphyrogenes found in Rondônia, four (P. specularis, P. convexus, P. sparus, and P. spadix) are described as new species. Biological details of the genus are discussed. An additional five new species of Porphyrogenes (P. spina, P. sporta, P. splendidus, P. simulator, and P. speciosus) are described from elsewhere. Porphyrogenes cervinus (Plötz, 1883), new synonym of Porphyrogenes ferruginea (Plötz, 1883), reinstated status, is raised from a subspecies of Porphyrogenes despecta (Butler, 1870) to species-level. Porphyrogenes omphale (Butler, 1871), reinstated status, is not synonymous with Porphyrogenes passalus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869) and becomes a species-level taxon for which no subspecies are recognized; P. passalus was described from a female with no known male. Porphyrogenes sula Williams and Bell, 1940, reinstated status, is raised from synonymy with Porphyrogenes zohra (Möschler, 1879) to species-level. Porphyrogenes stresa Evans, 1952, new status, is raised from a subspecies of P. zohra to species-level. Porphyrogenes immaculata (Skinner, 1920), new synonymy, was described from a male, which we believe is the male of Porphyrogenes sororcula (Mabille and Boullet, 1912). Porphyrogenes suva Evans, 1952, new synonymy, formerly considered a full species, was described from a male which we believe is the male of, and thus synonymous with, Porphyrogenes probus (Möschler, 1877). Porphyrogenes virgatus (Mabille, 1888) and Porphyrogenes eudemus (Mabille, 1888), considered synonyms of P. zohra and Porphyrogenes vulpecula (Plötz, 1882), respectively, without justification by Evans (1952), are removed from those synonymies and retained, along with P. passalus, as females without confirmed affinities. Lectotypes are here designated for Phareas ferruginea Plötz, 1883; Augiades despecta Butler, 1870; Telegonus omphale Butler, 1871; Eudamus pausias Hewitson, 1867; Telegonus probus Möschler, 1877; Telemiades vulpecula Plötz, 1882; Eudamus passalus Herrich-Schäffer, 1869; Thymele virgatus Mabille, 1888; and Thymele eudemus Mabille, 1888. A neotype is designated for Phareas cervinus Plötz, 1883, that being the lectotype of Phareas ferruginea. Types of all taxa in the genus are illustrated. Three named and five unnamed phenotypes of females, not reconciled with males, are identified and described. Twenty-six species are now recognized, making this one of the largest hesperiid genera in the neotropics.