Functional characterization of various algal carotenoid ketolases reveals that ketolating zeaxanthin efficiently is essential for high production of astaxanthin in transgenic Arabidopsis

Extending the carotenoid pathway to astaxanthin in plants is of scientific and industrial interest. However, expression of a microbial beta-carotene ketolase (BKT) that catalyses the formation of ketocarotenoids in trans
Extending the carotenoid pathway to astaxanthin in plants is of scientific and industrial interest. However, expression of a microbial beta-carotene ketolase (BKT) that catalyses the formation of ketocarotenoids in transgenic plants typically results in low levels of astaxanthin. The low efficiency of BKTs in ketolating zeaxanthin to astaxanthin is proposed to be the major limitation for astaxanthin accumulation in engineered plants. To verify this hypothesis, several algal BKTs were functionally characterized using an Escherichia coli system and three BKTs were identified, with high (up to 85%), moderate (~38%), and low (~1%) conversion rate from zeaxanthin to astaxanthin from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrBKT), Chlorella zofingiensis (CzBKT), and Haematococcus pluvialis (HpBKT3), respectively. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the CrBKT developed orange leaves which accumulated astaxanthin up to 2 mg g -1 dry weight with a 1.8-fold increase in total carotenoids. In contrast, the expression of CzBKT resulted in much lower astaxanthin content (0.24 mg g -1 dry weight), whereas HpBKT3 was unable to mediate synthesis of astaxanthin in A. thaliana. The none-native astaxanthin was found mostly in a free form integrated into the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II in young leaves but in esterified forms in senescent leaves. The alteration of carotenoids did not affect chlorophyll content, plant growth, or development significantly. The astaxanthin-producing plants were more tolerant to high light as shown by reduced lipid peroxidation. This study advances a decisive step towards the utilization of plants for the production of high-value astaxanthin. Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, astaxanthin, beta-carotene ketolase, carotenoid, Haematococcus pluvialis
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Metadaten
Author:Yu-Juan Zhong, Jun-Chao Huang, Jin Liu, Yin Li, Yue Jiang, Zeng-Fu Xu, Gerhard Sandmann, Feng Chen
URN:urn:nbn:de:hebis:30-106457
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err070
ISSN:1460-2431
ISSN:0022-0957
Pubmed Id:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=21398427
Parent Title (English):The journal of experimental botany
Publisher:Univ. Press
Place of publication:Oxford
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Date of Publication (online):2011/08/13
Year of first Publication:2011
Publishing Institution:Univ.-Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main
Release Date:2011/08/13
Tag:Haematococcus pluvialis; arabidopsis thaliana ; astaxanthin ; beta-carotene ketolase ; carotenoid
Volume:62
Pagenumber:11
First Page:3659
Last Page:3669
Note:
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
HeBIS PPN:272950025
Institutes:Biowissenschaften
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Pflanzen (Botanik)
Sammlungen:Universitätspublikationen
Sondersammelgebiets-Volltexte
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung-Nicht kommerziell 3.0

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