Impact of carnivory on human development and evolution revealed by a new unifying model of weaning in mammals

Our large brain, long life span and high fertility are key elements of human evolutionary success and are often thought to have evolved in interplay with tool use, carnivory and hunting. However, the specific impact of c
Our large brain, long life span and high fertility are key elements of human evolutionary success and are often thought to have evolved in interplay with tool use, carnivory and hunting. However, the specific impact of carnivory on human evolution, life history and development remains controversial. Here we show in quantitative terms that dietary profile is a key factor influencing time to weaning across a wide taxonomic range of mammals, including humans. In a model encompassing a total of 67 species and genera from 12 mammalian orders, adult brain mass and two dichotomous variables reflecting species differences regarding limb biomechanics and dietary profile, accounted for 75.5%, 10.3% and 3.4% of variance in time to weaning, respectively, together capturing 89.2% of total variance. Crucially, carnivory predicted the time point of early weaning in humans with remarkable precision, yielding a prediction error of less than 5% with a sample of forty-six human natural fertility societies as reference. Hence, carnivory appears to provide both a necessary and sufficient explanation as to why humans wean so much earlier than the great apes. While early weaning is regarded as essentially differentiating the genus Homo from the great apes, its timing seems to be determined by the same limited set of factors in humans as in mammals in general, despite some 90 million years of evolution. Our analysis emphasizes the high degree of similarity of relative time scales in mammalian development and life history across 67 genera from 12 mammalian orders and shows that the impact of carnivory on time to weaning in humans is quantifiable, and critical. Since early weaning yields shorter interbirth intervals and higher rates of reproduction, with profound effects on population dynamics, our findings highlight the emergence of carnivory as a process fundamentally determining human evolution.
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Metadaten
Author:Elia Psouni, Axel Janke, Martin Garwicz
URN:urn:nbn:de:hebis:30:3-242508
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032452
ISSN:1932-6203
Parent Title (English):PLoS one
Publisher:PLoS
Place of publication:Lawrence, Kan.
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Date of first Publication:2012/04/18
Publishing Institution:Univ.-Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main
Release Date:2012/04/25
Volume:7
Issue:4: e32452
Pagenumber:8
HeBIS PPN:303192445
Institutes:Institut für Ökologie, Evolution und Diversität
Biodiversität und Klima Forschungszentrum (BiK-F)
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
Sammlungen:Universitätspublikationen
Sondersammelgebiets-Volltexte
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 3.0

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