Structural and functional characterization of proteins : bovine visual rhodopsin and PaMTH1, a SAM dependent O-methyltransferase

Cells perform a wide range of functions such as signalling, transportation, immunoprotection and metabolism. Unravelling the molecular mechanism behind those processes will provide a platform for more targeted and ration
Cells perform a wide range of functions such as signalling, transportation, immunoprotection and metabolism. Unravelling the molecular mechanism behind those processes will provide a platform for more targeted and rational drug design. This is achieved by discerning the structural and functional aspects of the biological macromolecules involved. This thesis discusses about the biophysical characterization of protein structures and the biological importance of protein dynamics. Membrane receptors and enzymes which are ubiquitously present in our biological systems and regulate wide variety of functions are excellent choice for such study. From a pharmaceutical point of view, receptor and enzymes are exceptionally important drug targets as they represent the major share (receptor, 30% and enzymes, 47%) of all marketed drugs. Therefore, apart from biological insights, the detailed study of receptors and enzymes will provide the basis for new pharmaceutical applications. Most information about receptor activation and enzyme activity come from the structural and functional analysis of target members of the above mentioned systems.
In “Chapter 1 – General Introduction” the readers are introduced to the world of proteins with special focus on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and methyltransferases. The first part of this chapter discusses about GPCRs with emphasis on their classification, structural features and functions. GPCRs are the most abundant membrane receptors present in mammalian cells, accounting for almost 15% of all membrane proteins. The GPCR superfamily consists of ~800 members and can be subdivided into six classes (A-F). Class A containing rhodopsin, peptide hormones, olfactory GPCRs, is the most abundant with a large share of 85% of GPCR protein family. GPCRs share a common architecture of 7 transmembrane a-helices, with different ligand binding sites. Although a variety of ligands ranging from subatomic particles (a photon) to large proteins can activate a GPCR, their mechanism of signal transduction is almost similar. There are two major signal transduction pathways identified for GPCRs: the cAMP pathway and the phosphatidylinositol pathway. The therapeutic relevance of GPCRs has also been pointed out here since a large share (30%) of modern marketed drugs target GPCRs. 
In the second part of this chapter, the structural and functional characterizations of methyltransferases (MTs) are discussed in detail. Several important biological processes in cells e.g. drug metabolism, gene transcription, epigenetic regulations are modulated by methylation of targets ranging from small biomolecules to large proteins. MTs are the proteins which catalyze this methylation reaction and transfer the methyl group to an acceptor molecule through SN2 like nucleophilic substitution reaction. The MTs can be classified on the basis of the substrate atoms they methylate: O (54% of all MTs), N (23%), C (18%), S (3%) and other acceptors (such as halides; 2%). They can also be categorized into five different classes (Class I-V) depending upon distinctive structural features facilitating substrate binding or catalytic activity. Rossmann fold and SET (acronym acquired from the Drosophila Su(var)3-9 and 'Enhancer of zeste' proteins) domain are the two characteristic structural motifs commonly found in MTs. Similar to GPCRs, MTs dysfunction has been shown to be involved in various diseases including neuropsychiatric diseases and cancer. Therefore they are also interesting targets for drug development. The final part of this chapter discusses the importance of structural biology in gathering information related to structure and conformational dynamics of proteins. The two prominent biophysical techniques used in structural biology, X-ray crystallography and NMR, are discussed with focus on their advantages and limitation. The importance of NMR spectroscopic techniques to investigate different dynamic processes of protein at atomic resolution under physiological conditions is also discussed. Real time NMR spectroscopy required for the analysis of slow protein dynamic processes (protein folding, enzyme catalysis, domain rearrangement) has been explained in detail.
The second part of the thesis (Chapters 3-4), which is the cumulative part, comprises the original publications grouped into 2 chapters according to their topic:
• NMR-spectroscopic characterization of the transiently populated photointermediates of bovine rhodopsin and it’s interaction with arrestin (Chapter 3)
• Structural and biophysical characterization of PaMTH1, a putative SAM dependent O-methyltransferase from filamentous fungi Podospora anserina (Chapter 4)
Each chapter is initiated by a detailed introduction to the topic, providing the framework for the following papers. The personal contribution of this thesis’ author to each publication is stated in the introduction to the respective article.
show moreshow less
Biologische Zellen können zahlreiche unterschiedliche Funktionen wie Signaltransduktion (Informationsübertragung), Transport, Immunabwehr und Metabolismus ausführen und steuern. Das Wissen um die Wirkweise der Prozesse d
Biologische Zellen können zahlreiche unterschiedliche Funktionen wie Signaltransduktion (Informationsübertragung), Transport, Immunabwehr und Metabolismus ausführen und steuern. Das Wissen um die Wirkweise der Prozesse dieser molekularen Mechanismen ist die Grundlage für zielorientiertes und rationales Wirkstoffdesign. Hierfür ist es hilfreich, die strukturellen und funktionellen Aspekte aller beteiligten Makromoleküle zu analysieren. Die vorliegende Dissertation beschreibt die biophysikalische Charakterisierung von Proteinstrukturen und evaluiert die biologische Signifikanz von Informationen zur Proteindynamik...
show moreshow less

Download full text files

Export metadata

  • Export Bibtex
  • Export RIS

Additional Services

    Share in Twitter Search Google Scholar
Metadaten
Author:Deep Chatterjee
URN:urn:nbn:de:hebis:30:3-420193
Place of publication:Frankfurt am Main
Referee:Harald Schwalbe, Josef Wachtveitl
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language:English
Date of Publication (online):2016/11/15
Year of first Publication:2016
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Date of final exam:2016/10/25
Release Date:2016/11/15
Pagenumber:177
HeBIS PPN:395834430
Institutes:Biochemie und Chemie
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
Sammlungen:Universitätspublikationen
Licence (German):License Logo Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen

$Rev: 11761 $