Expected damage to accelerator equipment due to the impact of the full LHC beam : Beam instrumentation, experiments and simulations

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the biggest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world, designed to collide two proton beams with particle momentum of 7 TeV/c each. The stored energy of 362MJ in each beam is 
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the biggest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world, designed to collide two proton beams with particle momentum of 7 TeV/c each. The stored energy of 362MJ in each beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper or to evaporate about 300 litre of water. An accidental release of even a small fraction of the beam energy can cause severe damage to accelerator equipment. Reliable machine protection systems are necessary to safely operate the accelerator complex. To design a machine protection system, it is essential to know the damage potential of the stored beam and the consequences in case of a failure. One (catastrophic) failure would be, if the entire beam is lost in the aperture due to a problem with the beam dumping system. 
This thesis presents the simulation studies, results of a benchmarking experiment, and detailed target investigation, for this failure case. In the experiment, solid copper cylinders were irradiated with the 440GeV proton beam delivered by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at the High Radiation to Materials (HiRadMat) facility at CERN. The experiment confirmed the existence of the so-called hydrodynamic tunneling phenomenon for the first time. Detailed numerical simulations for particle-matter interaction with FLUKA, and with the two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, BIG2, were carried out. Excellent agreement was found between the experimental and the simulation results that validate predictions for the 7TeV beam of the LHC. The hydrodynamic tunneling effect is of considerable importance for the design of machine protection systems for accelerators with high stored beam energy. In addition, this thesis presents the first studies of the damage potential with beam parameters of the Future Circular Collider (FCC).
To detect beam losses due to fast failures it is essential to have fast beam instrumentation. Diamond based particle detectors are able to detect beam losses within a nanosecond time scale. Specially designed diamond detectors were used in the experiment mentioned above. Their efficiency and response has been studied for the first time over 5 orders of bunch intensity with electrons at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) at INFN, Frascati, Italy. The results of these measurements are discussed in this thesis. Furthermore an overview of the applications of diamond based particle detectors in damage experiments and for LHC operation is presented.
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Metadaten
Author:Florian Burkart
URN:urn:nbn:de:hebis:30:3-420342
Publisher:Univ.-Bibliothek
Place of publication:Frankfurt am Main
Referee:Ulrich Ratzinger, Oliver Kester, Daniel Wollmann
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language:English
Date of Publication (online):2016/11/14
Year of first Publication:2016
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Date of final exam:2016/08/31
Release Date:2016/11/25
Pagenumber:154
HeBIS PPN:396111343
Institutes:Physik
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physik
Sammlungen:Universitätspublikationen
Licence (German):License Logo Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen

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