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#### Institute

- Current status of quark gluon plasma signals (2001)
- Compelling evidence for the creation of a new form of matter has been claimed to be found in Pb+Pb collisions at SPS. We discuss the uniqueness of often proposed experimental signatures for quark matter formation in relativistic heavy ion collisions. It is demonstrated that so far none of the proposed signals like J/psi meson production/suppression, strangeness enhancement, dileptons, and directed flow unambigiously show that a phase of deconfined matter has been formed in SPS Pb+Pb collisions. We emphasize the need for systematic future measurements to search for simultaneous irregularities in the excitation functions of several observables in order to come close to pinning the properties of hot, dense QCD matter from data.

- Elliptic flow analysis at RHIC with the Lee-Yang Zeroes method in a relativistic transport approach (2006)
- The Lee-Yang zeroes method is applied to study elliptic flow (v_2) in Au+Au collisions at sqrt s =200 A GeV, with the UrQMD model. In this transport approach, the true event plane is known and both the nonflow effects and event-by-event v_2 fluctuations exist. Although the low resolutions prohibit the application of the method for most central and peripheral collisions, the integral and differential elliptic flow from the Lee-Yang zeroes method agrees with the exact v_2 values very well for semi-central collisions.

- Elliptic flow analysis at RHIC : fluctuations vs. non-flow effects (2005)
- The cumulant method is applied to study elliptic flow (v_2) in Au+Au collisions at sqrt s=200 AGeV, with the UrQMD model. In this approach, the true event plane is known and both the non-flow effects and event-by-event spatial (epsilon) and v_2 fluctuations exist. Qualitatively, the hierarchy of v_2 's from two, four and six-particle cumulants is consistent with the STAR data, however, the magnitude of v_2 in the UrQMD model is only 60% of the data. We find that the four and six-particle cumulants are good measures of the real elliptic flow over a wide range of centralities except for the most central and very peripheral events. There the cumulant method is affected by the v_2 fluctuations. In mid-central collisions, the four and six-particle cumulants are shown to give a good estimation of the true differential v_2, especially at large transverse momentum, where the two-particle cumulant method is heavily affected by the non-flow effects.

- DD correlations as a sensitive probe for thermalization in high-energy nuclear collisions (2006)
- We propose to measure correlations of heavy-flavor hadrons to address the status of thermalization at the partonic stage of light quarks and gluons in high-energy nuclear collisions, shown on the example of azimuthal correlations of D-Dbar pairs. We show that hadronic interactions at the late stage can not disturb these correlations significantly. Thus, a decrease or the complete absence of these initial correlations indicates frequent interactions of heavy-flavor quarks in the partonic stage. Therefore, early thermalization of light quarks is likely to be reached. PACS numbers: 25.75.-q

- Bremsstrahlung from a microscopic model of relativistic heavy ion collisions (2000)
- We compute bremsstrahlung arising from the acceleration of individual charged baryons and mesons during the time evolution of high-energy Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider using a microscopic transport model. We elucidate the connection between bremsstrahlung and charge stop- ping by colliding artificial pure proton on pure neutron nuclei. From the inten- sity of low energy bremsstrahlung, the time scale and the degree of stopping could be accurately extracted without measuring any hadronic observables. PACS: 25.75.-q, 13.85.Qk

- Signatures of dense hadronic matter in ultrarelativistic heavy ion reactions (1996)
- The behavior of hadronic matter at high baryon densities is studied within Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (URQMD). Baryonic stopping is observed for Au+Au collisions from SIS up to SPS energies. The excitation function of flow shows strong sensitivities to the underlying equation of state (EOS), allowing for systematic studies of the EOS. Dilepton spectra are calculated with and without shifting the rho pole. Except for S+Au collisions our calculations reproduce the CERES data.

- Microscopic calculations of stopping and flow from 160AMeV to 160AGeV (1996)
- The behavior of hadronic matter at high baryon densities is studied within Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (URQMD). Baryonic stopping is observed for Au+Au collisions from SIS up to SPS energies. The excitation function of flow shows strong sensitivities to the underlying equation of state (EOS), allowing for systematic studies of the EOS. Effects of a density dependent pole of the rho-meson propagator on dilepton spectra are studied for different systems and centralities at CERN energies.

- Excitation function of energy density and partonic degrees of freedom in relativistic heavy ion collisions (1998)
- We estimate the energy density epsilon pile-up at mid-rapidity in central Pb+Pb collisions from 2 200 GeV/nucleon. epsilon is decomposed into hadronic and partonic contributions. A detailed analysis of the collision dynamics in the framework of a microscopic transport model shows the importance of partonic degrees of freedom and rescattering of leading (di)quarks in the early phase of the reaction for Elab 30 GeV/nucleon. In Pb+Pb collisions at 160 GeV/nucleon the energy density reaches up to 4 GeV/fm3, 95% of which are contained in partonic degrees of freedom.

- Resonance absorption and regeneration in relativistic heavy ion collisions (2005)
- The regeneration of hadronic resonances is discussed for heavy ion collisions at SPS and SIS-300 energies. The time evolutions of Delta, rho and phi resonances are investigated. Special emphasize is put on resonance regeneration after chemical freeze-out. The emission time spectra of experimentally detectable resonances are explored.

- Reconstructing rho 0 and omega mesons from non-leptonic decays in C+C at 2AGeV (2005)
- We predict transverse and longitudinal momentum spectra and yields of rho 0 and omega mesons reconstructed from hadron correlations in C+C reactions at 2~AGeV. The rapidity and pT distributions for reconstructable rho 0 mesons differs strongly from the primary distribution, while the omega's distributions are only weakly modified. We discuss the temporal and spatial distributions of the particles emitted in the hadron channel. Finally, we report on the mass shift of the rho 0 due to its coupling to the N*(1520), which is observable in both the di-lepton and pi pi channel. Our calculations can be tested with the Hades experiment at GSI, Darmstadt.