Transverse-momentum dependent modification of dynamic texture in central Au+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200GeV
Jens Sören Lange
- Correlations in the hadron distributions produced in relativistic Au+Au collisions are studied in the discrete wavelet expansion method. The analysis is performed in the space of pseudorapidity (| eta | <= 1) and azimuth(full 2 pi ) in bins of transverse momentum (pt) from 0.14 <= pt <= 2.1GeV/c. In peripheral Au+Au collisions a correlation structure ascribed to minijet fragmentation is observed. It evolves with collision centrality and pt in a way not seen before, which suggests strong dissipation of minijet fragmentation in the longitudinally expanding medium.
Transverse-momentum and collision-energy dependence of high-pT hadron suppression in Au+Au collisions at ultrarelativistic energies
M. M. Aggarwal
Dominik Bernhard Flierl
Jens Sören Lange
- We report high statistics measurements of inclusive charged hadron production in Au+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200 GeV. A large, approximately constant hadron suppression is observed in central Au+Au collisions for 5<pT<12 GeV/c. The collision energy dependence of the yields and the centrality and pT dependence of the suppression provide stringent constraints on theoretical models of suppression. Models incorporating initial-state gluon saturation or partonic energy loss in dense matter are largely consistent with observations. We observe no evidence of pT-dependent suppression, which may be expected from models incorporating jet attenuation in cold nuclear matter or scattering of fragmentation hadrons.
Three-pion Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the STAR experiment
Dominik Bernhard Flierl
Jens Sören Lange
- Data from the first physics run at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Au+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=130 GeV, have been analyzed by the STAR Collaboration using three-pion correlations with charged pions to study whether pions are emitted independently at freeze-out. We have made a high-statistics measurement of the three-pion correlation function and calculated the normalized three-particle correlator to obtain a quantitative measurement of the degree of chaoticity of the pion source. It is found that the degree of chaoticity seems to increase with increasing particle multiplicity.
The strangeness signal in hadron production at relativistic energy
- Strangeness enhancement is discussed as a feature specific to relativistic nuclear collisions which create a fireball of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. At very high energy this is suggested to be partonic matter, but at lower energy it should consist of yet unknown hadronic degrees of freedom. The freeze-out of this high density state to a hadron gas can tell us about properties of fireball matter. The hadron gas at the instant of its formation captures conditions directly at the QCD phase boundary at top SPS and RHIC energy, chiefly the critical temperature and energy density.
The parton-hadron phase transition in central nuclear collisions at the CERN SPS
- A selection of recent data referring to Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS CERN energy of 158 GeV per nucleon is presented which might describe the state of highly excited strongly interacting matter both above and below the deconfinement to hadronization (phase) transition predicted by lattice QCD. A tentative picture emerges in which a partonic state is indeed formed in central Pb+Pb collisions which hadronizes at about T = 185 MeV, and expands its volume more than tenfold, cooling to about 120 MeV before hadronic collisions cease. We suggest further that all SPS collisions, from central S+S onward, reach that partonic phase, the maximum energy density increasing with more massive collision systems.
The parton to hadron phase transition observed in Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon
- Hadronic yields and yield ratios observed in Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS energy of 158 GeV per nucleon are known to resemble a thermal equilibrium population at T=180 +/- 10 MeV, also observed in elementary e+ + e- to hadron data at LEP. We argue that this is the universal consequence of the QCD parton to hadron phase transition populating the maximum entropy state. This state is shown to survive the hadronic rescattering and expansion phase, freezing in right after hadronization due to the very rapid longitudinal and transverse expansion that is inferred from Bose-Einstein pion correlation analysis of central Pb+Pb collisions.
The ALICE TPC, a large 3-dimensional tracking device with fast readout for ultra-high multiplicity events
Alexandru Florin Dobrin
Jens Joergen Gaardhøje
Carmen Gonzalez Gutierrez
Dag Toppe Larsen
Borge S. Nielsen
Attiq Ur Rehman
Hans Kristian Soltveit
Evert Anders Stenlund
Bernd Stefan Windelband
- The design, construction, and commissioning of the ALICE Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) is described. It is the main device for pattern recognition, tracking, and identification of charged particles in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. The TPC is cylindrical in shape with a volume close to 90 m3 and is operated in a 0.5 T solenoidal magnetic field parallel to its axis.
In this paper we describe in detail the design considerations for this detector for operation in the extreme multiplicity environment of central Pb–Pb collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (field cage, read-out chambers, electronics), infrastructure (gas and cooling system, laser-calibration system), and software led to many technical innovations which are described along with a presentation of all the major components of the detector, as currently realized. We also report on the performance achieved after completion of the first round of stand-alone calibration runs and demonstrate results close to those specified in the TPC Technical Design Report.
System-size dependence of strangeness production in high-energy A+A collisions and percolation of strings
- We argue that the shape of the system-size dependence of strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be understood in a picture that is based on the formation of clusters of overlapping strings. A string percolation model combined with a statistical description of the hadronization yields a quantitative agreement with the data at sqrt s_NN = 17.3 GeV. The model is also applied to RHIC energies.
Study on chemical equilibrium in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies
- We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the chemical equilibration of the system as a function of center of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. Additionally, we have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation.
Stopping power and collective flow of nuclear matter in the reaction Ar+Pb at 0.8 GeV/u
R. E. Renfordt
J. W.. Harris
H. G. Pugh
L. S. Schroeder
- Charged-particle exclusive data for Ar+Pb collisions at 0.772 GeV/u are analyzed in terms of collective variables for the event shapes in momentum space. Semicentral collisions lead to sidewards flow whereas nearly head-on collisions have spherical shapes in the c.m. frame, resulting from complete stopping of projectile motion. The hydrodynamical model predictions agree qualitatively with the data whereas the standard cascade model disagrees, lacking in stopping power and collective flow.