### Refine

#### Year of publication

- 2004 (32) (remove)

#### Document Type

- Preprint (32) (remove)

#### Is part of the Bibliography

- no (32) (remove)

#### Keywords

- - (1)
- Antiteilchen (1)
- Charge fluctuations (1)
- Chemical equilibration (1)
- Chemische Gleichgewichtherstellung (1)
- Dichte (1)
- Elektron (1)
- Gyromagnetic Moment (1)
- Kollision (1)
- Produktion von pentaquark (1)

#### Institute

- Physik (32) (remove)

- Analytical relationship for the cranking inertia (2004)
- The wave function of a spheroidal harmonic oscillator without spin-orbit interaction is expressed in terms of associated Laguerre and Hermite polynomials. The pairing gap and Fermi energy are found by solving the BCS system of two equations. Analytical relationships for the matrix elements of inertia are obtained function of the main quantum numbers and potential derivative. They may be used to test complex computer codes one should develop in a realistic approach of the fission dynamics. The results given for the 240 Pu nucleus are compared with a hydrodynamical model. The importance of taking into account the correction term due to the variation of the occupation number is stressed.

- Antibaryons bound in nuclei (2004)
- We study the possibility of producing a new kind of nuclear systems which in addition to ordinary nucleons contain a few antibaryons (B = p, , etc.). The properties of such systems are described within the relativistic mean field model by employing G parity transformed interactions for antibaryons. Calculations are first done for infinite systems and then for finite nuclei from 4He to 208Pb. It is demonstrated that the presence of a real antibaryon leads to a strong rearrangement of a target nucleus resulting in a significant increase of its binding energy and local compression. Noticeable e ects remain even after the antibaryon coupling constants are reduced by factor 3 4 compared to G parity motivated values. We have performed detailed calculations of the antibaryon annihilation rates in the nuclear environment by applying a kinetic approach. It is shown that due to significant reduction of the reaction Q values, the in medium annihilation rates should be strongly suppressed leading to relatively long lived antibaryon nucleus systems. Multi nucleon annihilation channels are analyzed too. We have also estimated formation probabilities of bound B + A systems in pA reactions and have found that their observation will be feasible at the future GSI antiproton facility. Several observable signatures are proposed. The possibility of producing multi quark antiquark clusters is discussed. PACS numbers: 25.43.+t, 21.10.-k, 21.30.Fe, 21.80.+a

- Chemical equilibration due to heavy Hagedorn states (2004)
- A scenario of heavy resonances, called massive Hagedorn states, is proposed which exhibits a fast (t H 1 fm/c) chemical equilibration of (strange) baryons and anti-baryons at the QCD critical temperature Tc. For relativistic heavy ion collisions this scenario predicts that hadronization is followed by a brief expansion phase during which the equilibration rate is higher than the expansion rate, so that baryons and antibaryons reach chemical equilibrium before chemical freeze-out occurs. PACS-Nr.: 12.38.Mh

- Chemical equilibrium study in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies (2004)
- We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the strangeness production as a function of centre of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. We have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation. We show that, in this energy range, the use of hadron yields at midrapidity instead of in full phase space artificially enhances strangeness production and could lead to incorrect conclusions as far as the occurrence of full chemical equilibrium is concerned. In addition to the basic model with an extra strange quark non-equilibrium parameter, we have tested three more schemes: a two-component model superimposing hadrons coming out of single nucleon-nucleon interactions to those emerging from large fireballs at equilibrium, a model with local strangeness neutrality and a model with strange and light quark non-equilibrium parameters. The behaviour of the source parameters as a function of colliding system and collision energy is studied. The description of strangeness production entails a non-monotonic energy dependence of strangeness saturation parameter gamma_S with a maximum around 30A GeV. We also present predictions of the production rates of still unmeasured hadrons including the newly discovered Theta^+(1540) pentaquark baryon.

- Collective flow signals the quark gluon plasma (2004)
- A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on charm dynamics and hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 A·GeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the v1-flow and of the v2-flow at 10 A·GeV; at 40 A·GeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as potential evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density B. A detailed discussion of the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS) of hot dense matter at RHIC follows. Here, hadronic rescattering models can explain < 30% of the observed elliptic flow, v2, for pT > 2 GeV/c. This is interpreted as evidence for the production of superdense matter at RHIC with initial pressure far above hadronic pressure, p > 1 GeV/fm3. We suggest that the fluctuations in the flow, v1 and v2, should be measured in future since ideal hydrodynamics predicts that they are larger than 50 % due to initial state fluctuations. Furthermore, the QGP coe cient of viscosity may be determined experimentally from the fluctuations observed. The connection of v2 to jet suppression is examined. It is proven experimentally that the collective flow is not faked by minijet fragmentation. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the awayside jet suppression can only partially (< 50%) be due to hadronic rescattering. We, finally, propose upgrades and second generation experiments at RHIC which inspect the first order phase transition in the fragmentation region, i.e. at µB 400 MeV (y 4 5), where the collapse of the proton flow should be seen in analogy to the 40 A·GeV data. The study of Jet-Wake-riding potentials and Bow shocks caused by jets in the QGP formed at RHIC can give further information on the equation of state (EoS) and transport coe cients of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP).

- Complex fission phenomena (2004)
- Complex fission phenomena are studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle point) nuclear shapes are obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in binary cold fission of Th and U isotopes is explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined.

- Deformation energy minima at finite mass asymmetry (2004)
- A very general saddle point nuclear shape may be found as a solution of an integro-differential equation without giving apriori any shape parametrization. By introducing phenomenological shell corrections one obtains minima of deformation energy for binary fission of parent nuclei at a finite (non-zero) mass asymmetry. Results are presented for reflection asymmetric saddle point shapes of thorium and uranium even-mass isotopes with A=226-238 and A=230-238 respectively.

- Density perturbations in heavy- ion collisions below the critical point (2004)
- Universality arguments suggest that the chiral phase transition for two massless quark flavors is second-order at baryon-chemical potential µB = 0 [1], which then becomes a crossover for small quark masses.

- Electric charge fluctuations in central Pb + Pb collisions at 20, 30, 40, 80 and 158 AGeV (2004)
- Results are presented on event-by-event electric charge fluctuations in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20, 30, 40, 80 and 158 AGeV. The observed fluctuations are close to those expected for a gas of pions correlated by global charge conservation only. These fluctuations are considerably larger than those calculated for an ideal gas of deconfined quarks and gluons. The present measurements do not necessarily exclude reduced fluctuations from a quark-gluon plasma because these might be masked by contributions from resonance decays.

- Event-by-event fluctuations of particle ratios in central Pb + Pb collisions at 20 to 158 AGeV (2004)
- In the vicinity of the QCD phase transition, critical fluctuations have been predicted to lead to non-statistical fluctuations of particle ratios, depending on the nature of the phase transition. Recent results of the NA49 energy scan program show a sharp maximum of the ratio of K+ to Pi+ yields in central Pb+Pb collisions at beam energies of 20-30 AGeV. This observation has been interpreted as an indication of a phase transition at low SPS energies. We present first results on event-by-event fluctuations of the kaon to pion and proton to pion ratios at beam energies close to this maximum.