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- Space-time evolution and HBT analysis of relativistic heavy ion collisions in a chiral SU(3) x SU(3) model (2002)
- The space-time dynamics and pion-HBT radii in central heavy ion-collisions at CERN-SPS and BNL-RHIC are investigated within a hydrodynamic simulation. The dependence of the dynamics and the HBT-parameters on the EoS is studied with different parametrizations of a chiral SU(3) sigma omega model. The selfconsistent collective expansion includes the e ects of e ective hadron masses, generated by the nonstrange and strange scalar condensates. Different chiral EoS show di erent types of phase transitions and even a crossover. The influence of the order of the phase transition and of the latent heat on the space-time dynamics and pion-HBT radii is studied. A small latent heat, i.e. a weak first-order chiral phase transition, or a smooth crossover lead to distinctly di erent HBT predictions than a strong first order phase transition. A quantitative description of the data, both at SPS energies as well as at RHIC energies, appears di cult to achieve within the ideal hydrodynamic approach using the SU(3) chiral EoS. A strong first-order quasi-adiabatic chiral phase transition seems to be disfavored by the pion-HBT data from CERN-SPS and BNL-RHIC.

- Particle ratios at RHIC : effective hadron masses and chemical freeze-out (2002)
- The measured particle ratios in central heavy-ion collisions at RHIC-BNL are investigated within a chemical and thermal equilibrium chiral SU(3) theta - omega approach. The commonly adopted noninteracting gas calculations yield temperatures close to or above the critical temperature for the chiral phase transition, but without taking into account any interactions. Contrary, the chiral SU(3) model predicts temperature and density dependent e ective hadron masses and e ective chemical potentials in the medium and a transition to a chirally restored phase at high temperatures or chemical potentials. Three di erent parametrizations of the model, which show di erent types of phase transition behaviour, are investigated. We show that if a chiral phase transition occured in those collisions, freezing of the relative hadron abundances in the symmetric phase is excluded by the data. Therefore, either very rapid chemical equilibration must occur in the broken phase, or the measured hadron ratios are the outcome of the dynamical symmetry breaking. Furthermore, the extracted chemical freeze-out parameters di er considerably from those obtained in simple noninteracting gas calculations. In particular, the three models yield up to 35 MeV lower temperatures than the free gas approximation. The in-medium masses turn out di er up to 150 MeV from their vacuum values.

- Equation of state for the two component Van der Waals gas with relativistic excluded volumes (2002)
- A canonical partition function for the two-component excluded volume model is derived, leading to two di erent van der Waals approximations. The one is known as the Lorentz-Berthelot mixture and the other has been proposed recently. Both models are analysed in the canonical and grand canonical ensemble. In comparison with the one-component van der Waals excluded volume model the suppression of particle densities is reduced in these two-component formulations, but in two essentially di erent ways. Presently used multi-component models have no such reduction. They are shown to be not correct when used for components with di erent hard-core radii. For high temperatures the excluded volume interaction is refined by accounting for the Lorentz contraction of the spherical excluded volumes, which leads to a distinct enhancement of lighter particles. The resulting e ects on pion yield ratios are studied for AGS and SPS data.

- Fragmente einer Sprachgeschichte des Liebesbriefs : Texte im Spannungsfeld von Sprachgeschichte, Geschichte der Kommunikation und Mediengeschichte (2002)
- Der Liebesbrief des 20. Jahrhunderts ist Ausdruck einer konkreten lebensweltlichen und historisch zu verortenden Praxis der Liebeskommunikation. Liebesbriefe sind Brautbriefe, Liebesbekenntnisse, Berichte aus dem Alltag, Soldatenbriefe, Vereinbarungen von Treffen, E-Mail-Korrespondenzen, Flirtbriefe und Zettelchen – es gibt eine reiche Palette an Funktionen und Typen. Im Hinblick auf eine Geschichte des Liebesbriefs im 20. Jahrhunderts zeigte sich, dass im Liebesbrief neben der Liebeserklärung auch „Beziehungsarbeit“ und besonders aber die Konstruktion von Intimität eine zentrale Rolle spielt. Die Kritik an der Sprache der Liebe und des Liebesbriefs (des 19. Jahrhunderts) kann bereits in den 1920er Jahren beobachtet werden. Zu einem Codewechsel kommt es in Briefen der 1960er Jahre. Die Schriftlichkeit des Liebesbriefs entfernt sich allmählich von einer ausschließlichen Schreibschriftlichkeit. Der Liebesbrief wird mehr und mehr zu einem Sprache-Bild-Text. Die neuen Medien der Liebesschriftlichkeit zeigen eine Mediatisierung auch im Bereich des Liebesdiskurses: neben neuen Liebesbrieftypen, wie dem Flirtbrief, bilden sich neue Liebesbeziehungstypen heraus. Darüber hinaus fungieren die neuen Medien immer schon selbstreflexiv als Metakommunikatoren der Modernität.

- Baryon stopping and strange baryon/antibaryon production at SPS energies (2002)
- The amount of proton stopping in central Pb+Pb collisions from 20 160 A·GeV as well as hyperon and antihyperon rapidity distributions are calcu- lated within the UrQMD model in comparison to experimental data at 40, 80 and 160 A·GeV taken recently from the NA49 collaboration. Further- more, the amount of baryon stopping at 160 A·GeV for Pb + Pb collisions is studied as a function of centrality in comparison to the NA49 data. We find that the strange baryon yield is reasonably described for central colli- sions, however, the rapidity distributions are somewhat more narrow than the data. Moreover, the experimental antihyperon rapidity distributions at 40, 80 and 160 A·GeV are underestimated by up to factors of 3 - depending on the annihilation cross section employed - which might be addressed to missing multi-meson fusion channels in the UrQMD model. PACS 25.75.+r

- Nucleus-nucleus collisions at high baryon densities (2002)
- We study central collision of Pb + Pb at 20, 40, 80 and 160 A·GeV within the UrQMD transport approach and compare rapidity distributions of ,K+,K and with the recent measurements from the NA49 Collaboration at 40, 80 and 160 A·GeV. It is found that the UrQMD model reasonably describes the data, however, systematically overpredicts the yield by < 20%, whereas the K+ yield is underestimated by < 15%. The K yields are in a good agreement with the experimental data, the yields are also in a reasonable correspondence with the data for all energies. We find that hadronic flavour exchange reactions largely distort the information about the initial strangeness production mechanism at all energies considered. PACS: 25.75.+r

- Hadronic observables from SIS to SPS energies: anything strange with strangeness? (2002)
- We calculate p, ±,K± and (+ 0) rapidity distributions and compare to experimental data from SIS to SPS energies within the UrQMD and HSD transport approaches that are both based on string, quark, diquark (q, ¯q, qq, ¯q ¯q) and hadronic degrees of freedom. The two transport models do not include any explicit phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma (QGP). It is found that both approaches agree rather well with each other and with the experimental rapidity distributions for protons, s, ± and K±. In- spite of this apparent agreement both transport models fail to reproduce the maximum in the excitation function for the ratio K+/ + found experimen- tally between 11 and 40 A·GeV. A comparison to the various experimental data shows that this failure is dominantly due to an insu cient description of pion rapidity distributions rather than missing strangeness . The modest di erences in the transport model results on the other hand can be attributed to di erent implementations of string formation and frag- mentation, that are not su ciently controlled by experimental data for the elementary reactions in vacuum.

- From the Dyson-Schwinger to the transport equation in the background field gauge of QCD. (2002)
- The non-equilibrium quantum field dynamics is usually described in the closed-time-path formalism. The initial state correlations are introduced into the generating functional by non-local source terms. We propose a functional approach to the Dyson-Schwinger equation, which treats the non-local and local source terms in the same way. In this approach, the generating functional is formulated for the connected Green functions and one-particle-irreducible vertices. The great advantages of our approach over the widely used two-particle-irreducible method are that it is much simpler and that it is easy to implement the procedure in a computer program to automatically generate the Feynman diagrams for a given process. The method is then applied to a pure gluon plasma to derive the gauge-covariant transport equation from the Dyson-Schwinger equation in the background covariant gauge. We discuss the structure of the kinetic equation and show its relationship with the classical one. We derive the gauge-covariant collision part and present an approximation in the vicinity of equilibrium. The role of the non-local source kernel in the non-equilibrium system is discussed in the context of a free scalar field. PACS numbers: 12.38.Mh, 25.75.-q, 24.85.+p, 11.15.Kc

- Kinetic equation for gluons in the background gauge of QCD (2002)
- We derive the quantum kinetic equation for a pure gluon plasma, applying the background field and closed-time-path method. The derivation is more general and transparent than earlier works. A term in the equation is found which, as in the classical case, corresponds to the color charge precession for partons moving in the gauge field. PACS numbers: 12.38.Mh, 25.75.-q, 24.85.+p, 11.15.Kc

- Bulk hadron production at AGS and SPS (2002)
- With new data available from the SPS, at 40 and 80 GeV/A, I review the systematics of bulk hadron multiplicities, with prime focus on strangeness production. The classical concept of strangeness enhancement in central AA collisions is reviewed, in view of the statistical hadronization model which suggests to understand strangeness enhancement to arise chiefly in the transition from the canonical to the grand canonical version of that model. I. e. enhancement results from the fading away of canonical suppression. The model also captures the striking strangeness maximum observed in the vicinity of sqrt s approx 8 GeV. A puzzle remains in the understanding of apparent grand canonical order at the lower SPS, and at AGS energies.