Is part of the Bibliography
Breaking new ground? : On the achievements and shortcomings of a franco german perspective on the interwar period - Democracies and Totalitarian Regimes in the Interwar Period ; Part 6
Species differences in bacterial NhaA Na+/H+ exchangers
- Bacteria have adapted their NhaA Na(+)/H(+) exchangers responsible for salt homeostasis to their different habitats. We present an electrophysiological and kinetic analysis of NhaA from Helicobacter pylori and compare it to the previously investigated exchangers from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Properties of all three transporters are described by a simple model using a single binding site for H(+) and Na(+). We show that H.pylori NhaA only has a small acidic shift of its pH-dependent activity profile compared to the other transporters and discuss why a more drastic change in its pH activity profile is not physiologically required.
Targeting survivin in cancer: novel drug development approaches
- Survivin is a well-established target in experimental cancer therapy. The molecule is over-expressed in most human tumors, but hardly detectable in normal tissues. Multiple functions in different subcellular compartments have been assigned. It participates in the control of cell division, apoptosis, the cellular stress response, and also in the regulation of cell migration and metastasis. Survivin expression has been recognized as a biomarker: high expression indicates an unfavorable prognosis and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation treatment. Survivin is an unconventional drug target and several indirect approaches have been exploited to affect its function and the phenotype of survivin-expressing cells. Interference with the expression of the survivin gene, the utilization of its messenger RNA, the intracellular localization, the interaction with binding partners, the stability of the survivin protein, and the induction of survivin-specific immune responses have been taken into consideration. A direct strategy to inhibit survivin has been based on the identification of a specifically interacting peptide. This peptide can recognize survivin intracellularly and cause the degradation of the ligand–survivin complex. Technology is being developed that might allow the derivation of small molecular-weight, drug-like compounds that are functionally equivalent to the peptide ligand.
Fiscal consolidation strategy : [Version June 12, 2012]
John F. Cogan
John B. Taylor
Maik Hendrik Wolters
- In the aftermath of the global financial crisis and great recession, many countries face substantial deficits and growing debts. In the United States, federal government outlays as a ratio to GDP rose substantially from about 19.5 percent before the crisis to over 24 percent after the crisis. In this paper we consider a fiscal consolidation strategy that brings the budget to balance by gradually reducing this spending ratio over time to the level that prevailed prior to the crisis. A crucial issue is the impact of such a consolidation strategy on the economy. We use structural macroeconomic models to estimate this impact. We consider two types of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models: a neoclassical growth model and more complicated models with price and wage rigidities and adjustment costs. We separate out the impact of reductions in government purchases and transfers, and we allow for a reduction in both distortionary taxes and government debt relative to the baseline of no consolidation. According to the initial model simulations GDP rises in the short run upon announcement and implementation of this fiscal consolidation strategy and remains higher than the baseline in the long run.
Bibliographical references on the bryophyte flora of the Canary Islands (1740-2006)
Gerard M. Dirkse
- A compilation of 427 bibliographical references on bryophytes from Canary Islands is presented. In order to include all the information dealing with Canarian bryoflora, we have listed all references that record any data on this subject.
Proceedings of the Sinn und Bedeutung 10 : [10th annual meeting of the Gesellschaft für Semantik, October 13 - 15, 2005, Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, Berlin ;] Volume 2
Proceedings of the Sinn und Bedeutung 10 : 10th annual meeting of the Gesellschaft für Semantik, October 13 - 15, 2005, Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, Berlin
Differentiation of the Piceetalia and Athyrio-Piceetalia forests in Slovenia
- The article deals with Norway spruce (Picea abies), silver fir (Abies alba) and larch (Larix decidua) forests of the orders Piceetalia and Athyrio-Piceetalia (Vaccinio-Piceetea) in Slovenia. A total of 934 relevés of spruce, larch and fir forests within the Piceetalia and Athyrio-Piceetalia were collected from the literature. After resampling, 319 relevés remained, originating from 28 associations. Classification revealed two major groups of spruce, larch and fir forests, one thriving on non-carbonate bedrock and the other on carbonate. We further divided forests on non-carbonate substrate into two major groups – one thriving at high altitudes and the other in lowlands, both assigned to Piceion abietis. The second major group contains mesophilous, species-rich communities found mostly on carbonate bedrock. This major group can be further divided into four groups. The group of secondary forest on sites of beech forests, as well as the group of forest found in frost hollows can be assigned to Abieti-Piceion. The group of herb-rich, mesophilous communities forming zonal spruce and larch forests can be assigned to Chrysanthemo-Piceion and the group of forests on boulder scree to Calamagrostio-Abietion. Analysis of structural, functional, phytogeographical and geomorphological features, as well as ecological condi-tions estimated by bioindicator values, demonstrated the usefulness of this classification.
Control thyself: self-control failure and household wealth
- We examine the relationship between household wealth and self-control. Although self-control has been linked to consumption and financial behavior, its measurement remains an open issue. We employ a definition of self-control failure that follows literature in psychology, suggesting that three factors can render self-control defective: lack of planning, lack of monitoring, and lack of commitment to pre-set plans. Our measure combines those three ingredients and can be computed using a standard representative survey. We find that self-control failure is strongly associated with different household net wealth measures and with self-assessed financial distress.
How special are they? - Targeting systemic risk by regulating shadow banking : (October 5, 2014)
- This essay argues that at least some of the financial stability concerns associated with shadow banking can be addressed by an approach to financial regulation that imports its functional foundations more vigorously into the interpretation and implementation of existing rules. It shows that the general policy goals of prudential banking regulation remain constant over time despite dramatic transformations in the financial and technological landscape. Moreover, these overarching policy goals also legitimize intervention in the shadow banking sector. On these grounds, this essay encourages a more normative construction of available rules that potentially limits both the scope for regulatory arbitrage and the need for ever more rapid updates and a constant increase in the complexity of the regulatory framework. By tying the regulatory treatment of financial innovation closely to existing prudential rules and their underlying policy rationales, the proposed approach potentially ends the socially wasteful race between hare and tortoise that signifies the relation between regulators and a highly dynamic industry. In doing so it does not generally hamper market participants’ efficient discoveries where disintermediation proves socially beneficial. Instead, it only weeds-out rent-seeking circumventions of existing rules and standards.