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Nuclear reactions for astrophysics with storage rings
- This thesis presents experimental studies of proton capture and fragmentation reactions with heavy-ion storage rings. In one experiment, the 96Ru(p, γ)97Rh cross sections near the Gamow window have been measured at the ESR of GSI. In the other experiment, the measurement of the fragmentation yields has been carried out at the CSRe of IMP.
It is essential to determine the cross sections of (γ, p) or (p, γ) reactions for p-process network calculations. However, only very few of the required cross sections have been measured and thus most of them rely solely on Hauser-Feshbach model predictions. The predictions of the model have always very large uncertainties because of the not well-known input parameters. These parameters can be constrained by experiments. Compared to the traditional activation technique, a novel method using a storage ring has been developed to measure the cross sections of (p, γ) reactions in inverse kinematics.
This proton capture experiment has been performed at the ESR, where the circulating 96Ru44+ ions interacted with a hydrogen gas target at 9, 10 and 11 MeV/u. The nuclear reaction products of (p, p), (p, α), (p, n) and (p, γ) reactions were registered by position sensitive detectors. A Geant4 simulation code has been developed to distinguish the (p, γ) reaction products unambiguously from the background reactions. In this work, a relative normalization method has been utilized to accurately determine the cross sections of the (p, γ) reaction. The 96Ru(p, γ)97Rh cross section in the Gamow window of the p process is sensitive to two parameters, i.e., the γ-ray strength function and the optical model potential, while it is mainly sensitive to the γ-ray strength function in the energy region of our experiment. Therefore, our experimental (p, γ) cross sections near 10 MeV/u have been used to directly constrain the γ-ray strength function used in the model. Furthermore, the proton potential has also been constrained by combining our results with additional experimental data for this reaction in the lower energy region. The constrained model has been used to calculate the reaction rate over a wide temperature range, which is an extremely important input for astrophysical calculations.
The yields of fragments produced by 78Kr fragmentation reactions have been measured at the CSRe for the Tz = −1/2 and Tz = 1/2 nuclei along or close to the paths of αp- and rp-processes. The measured yields present a significant odd-even staggering effect for Tz = −1/2 nuclides but they are small for Tz = 1/2 nuclides.
The magnitude of this effect for four consecutive yields has been quantified using a third-order difference formula. It is found that the largest odd-even staggering is reached near the closed shells Z = 20 and Z = 28. Our experimental results could also compared with the data from other experiments with different projectile-target combinations. All these experimental data strongly support the closed shells Z = 20 and Z = 28 for the Tz = −1/2 nuclei.
Systematic s-process sensitivity studies
Crystal structure of 2-benzamido-N-(2,2-diethoxyethyl)benzamide
Hassan B. Lazrek
Joachim W. Engels
- In the title compound, C20H24N2O4, both peptide bonds adopt a trans configuration with respect to the —N—H and —C=O groups. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 53.58 (4)°. The molecular conformation is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. The crystal packing is characterized by zigzag chains of N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonded molecules running along the b-axis direction.
A revised infrageneric classification and synopsis of the Afro-Eurasian genus Moraea (Iridaceae: Irideae)
John C. Manning
- Molecular phylogenetic studies of Moraea Mill. and the inclusion of Barnardiella Goldblatt, Galaxia Thunb., Gynandriris Parl., Hexaglottis Vent., Homeria Vent. and Roggeveldia Goldblatt in the genus have rendered the existing infrageneric classification, dating from 1976, in need of substantial revision. In particular, subg. Moraea and subg. Vieusseuxia have been shown to be paraphyletic. We propose a new infrageneric classification, based, as far as current data permit, on phylogenetic principles. Monophyletic subgenera and sections are circumscribed based on molecular phylogenies alone or in combination with morphological considerations. We recognize 11 subgenera, 15 sections and three series, arranged as follows in phylogenetic sequence: Plumarieae; Visciramosae (with sect. Multifoliae and sect. Visciramosae); Moraea (with sect. Moraea and sect. Polyphyllae); Galaxia (with ser. Unguiculatae, ser. Eurystigma and ser. Galaxia); Monocephalae; Acaules; Polyanthes (with sect. Serpentinae, sect. Deserticola, sect. Hexaglottis, sect. Gynandriris, sect. Polyanthes and sect. Pseudospicatae); Grandifl orae; Vieusseuxia (with sect. Integres, sect. Vieusseuxia and sect. Villosae); and Homeria (with sect. Stipanthera, sect. Flexuosae, sect. Homeria and sect. Conantherae). Most are moderately to well circumscribed at the morphological level either by floral or vegetative characters, except subg. Moraea, which includes a small number of unspecialized species apparently not linked by any apomorphic features. With over 27 new species described in the past 25 years and another 60 transferred to the genus, Moraea now includes 214 species. We provide a full taxonomic synopsis of the genus.
Jewish economy of Palestine and hard currency
Alpha-induced production cross sections of 77Kr and 77Br and thick target yield of 80Br
- This work derived the value of α-induced production cross sections of 77Kr and 77Br at α-energies of 12 MeV and 14 MeV, the thick target yields of 77Kr and 77Br at α-energies of 11.19 MeV, 13 MeV and 15.1 MeV and the thick target yield of 80Br as well as 80mBr at an α-energy of 15.1 MeV using the activation technique...
Proton-capture reactions in thermonuclear supernovae and the p process
- XIII Nuclei in the Cosmos, 7-11 July, 2014 Debrecen, Hungary.
As an alternative production scenario to the so-called g process, the most abundant p nucleus 92Mo may be produced by a chain of proton-capture reactions in supernovae type Ia. The reactions 90Zr(p,g) and 91Nb(p,g) are the most important reactions in this chain. We have measured the first reaction using high-resolution in-beam g-spectroscopy at HORUS, Cologne, Germany, to contribute to the existing experimental data base. So far, we only investigated the high-energy part of the Gamow window and the analysis is still in progress. We plan to study the second reaction in standard kinematics at the FRANZ facility, Frankfurt, Germany. Current developments at FRANZ will be explained in detail.
Hand shadows : how to make them
Structural and functional investigation of the selectivity in interactions of peptidyl carrier proteins from Bacillus
The thousand and one nights : commonly called in England The Arabian night's entertainments