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- Ab-Initio simulations of pressure effects on structural and electronic properties of iron based superconductors (2014)
- The ab-initio molecular dynamics framework has been the cornerstone of computational solid state physics in the last few decades. Although it is already a mature field it is still rapidly developing to accommodate the growth in solid state research as well as to efficiently utilize the increase in computing power. Starting from the first principles, the ab-initio molecular dynamics provides essential information about structural and electronic properties of matter under various external conditions. In this thesis we use the ab-initio molecular dynamics to study the behavior of BaFe2As2 and CaFe2As2 under the application of external pressure. BaFe2As2 and CaFe2As2 belong to the family of iron based superconductors which are a novel and promising superconducting materials. The application of pressure is one of two key methods by which electronic and structural properties of iron based superconductors can be modified, the other one being doping (or chemical pressure). In particular, it has been noted that pressure conditions have an important effect, but their exact role is not fully understood. To better understand the effect of different pressure conditions we have performed a series of ab-initio simulations of pressure application. In order to apply the pressure with arbitrary stress tensor we have developed a method based on the Fast Inertial Relaxation Engine, whereby the unit cell and the atomic positions are evolved according to the metadynamical equations of motion. We have found that the application of hydrostatic and c axis uniaxial pressure induces a phase transition from the magnetically ordered orthorhombic phase to the non-magnetic collapsed tetragonal phase in both BaFe2As2 and CaFe2As2. In the case of BaFe2As2, an intermediate tetragonal non-magnetic tetragonal phase is observed in addition. Application of the uniaxial pressure parallel to the c axis reduces the critical pressure of the phase transition by an order of magnitude, in agreement with the experimental findings. The in-plane pressure application did not result in transition to the non-magnetic tetragonal phase and instead, rotation of the magnetic order direction could be observed. This is discussed in the context of Ginzburg-Landau theory. We have also found that the magnetostructural phase transition is accompanied by a change in the Fermi surface topology, whereby the hole cylinders centered around the Gamma point disappear, restricting the possible Cooper pair scattering channels in the tetragonal phase. Our calculations also permit us to estimate the bulk moduli and the orthorhombic elastic constants of BaFe2As2 and CaFe2As2. To study the electronic structure in systems with broken translational symmetry, such as doped iron based superconductors, it is necessary to develop a method to unfold the complicated bandstructures arising from the supercell calculations. In this thesis we present the unfolding method based on group theoretical techniques. We achieve the unfolding by employing induced irreducible representations of space groups. The unique feature of our method is that it treats the point group operations on an equal footing with the translations. This permits us to unfold the bandstructures beyond the limit of translation symmetry and also formulate the tight-binding models of reduced dimensionality if certain conditions are met. Inclusion of point group operations in the unfolding formalism allows us to reach important conclusions about the two versus one iron picture in iron based superconductors. And finally, we present the results of ab-initio structure prediction in the cases of giant volume collapse in MnS2 and alkaline doped picene. In the case of MnS2, a previously unobserved high pressure arsenopyrite structure of MnS2 is predicted and stability regions for the two competing metastable phases under pressure are determined. In the case of alkaline doped picene, crystal structures with different levels of doping were predicted and used to study the role of electronic correlations.

- Energy- and cost-efficient Lattice-QCD computations using graphics processing units (2014)
- Quarks and gluons are the building blocks of all hadronic matter, like protons and neutrons. Their interaction is described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), a theory under test by large scale experiments like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and in the future at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. However, perturbative methods can only be applied to QCD for high energies. Studies from first principles are possible via a discretization onto an Euclidean space-time grid. This discretization of QCD is called Lattice QCD (LQCD) and is the only ab-initio option outside of the high-energy regime. LQCD is extremely compute and memory intensive. In particular, it is by definition always bandwidth limited. Thus—despite the complexity of LQCD applications—it led to the development of several specialized compute platforms and influenced the development of others. However, in recent years General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) came up as a new means for parallel computing. Contrary to machines traditionally used for LQCD, graphics processing units (GPUs) are a massmarket product. This promises advantages in both the pace at which higher-performing hardware becomes available and its price. CL2QCD is an OpenCL based implementation of LQCD using Wilson fermions that was developed within this thesis. It operates on GPUs by all major vendors as well as on central processing units (CPUs). On the AMD Radeon HD 7970 it provides the fastest double-precision D= kernel for a single GPU, achieving 120GFLOPS. D=—the most compute intensive kernel in LQCD simulations—is commonly used to compare LQCD platforms. This performance is enabled by an in-depth analysis of optimization techniques for bandwidth-limited codes on GPUs. Further, analysis of the communication between GPU and CPU, as well as between multiple GPUs, enables high-performance Krylov space solvers and linear scaling to multiple GPUs within a single system. LQCD calculations require a sampling of the phase space. The hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm performs this. For this task, a single AMD Radeon HD 7970 GPU provides four times the performance of two AMD Opteron 6220 running an optimized reference code. The same advantage is achieved in terms of energy-efficiency. In terms of normalized total cost of acquisition (TCA), GPU-based clusters match conventional large-scale LQCD systems. Contrary to those, however, they can be scaled up from a single node. Examples of large GPU-based systems are LOEWE-CSC and SANAM. On both, CL2QCD has already been used in production for LQCD studies.

- Natural fractionation of uranium isotopes (2013)
- Das Thema dieser Arbeit war die Untersuchung der natürlichen Variationen von den zwei primordialen Uranisotopen (238U und 235U) mit einem Schwerpunkt auf Proben, die (1) die kontinentale Kruste und ihre Verwitterungsprodukte (d.h. Granite, Shales und Flusswasser) repräsentieren, (2) Produkte der hydrothermalen Alteration vom mittelozeanischen Rücken widerspiegeln (d.h. alterierte Basalte, Karbonatgänge und hydrothermales Wasser) und (3) aus abgegrenzten euxinischen Becken (d.h. Proben aus der Wassersäule und den dazugehörigen Sedimenten) stammen. Das allgemeine Ziel war das Verständnis, unter welchen Bedingungen und Mechanismen eine Fraktionierung der zwei häufigsten Uranisotope (238U und 235U) in der Natur erfolgt, zu verbessern. Die untersuchten Haupt- und Nebenflüsse unterscheiden sich sowohl in Ihrer Urankonzentration (c(U)) als auch in Ihrer Uranisotopenzusammensetzung (δ238U), wobei die Nebenflüsse eine geringere Urankonzentration (0.87 nmol/kg bis 3.08 nmol/kg) und eine schwerere Uranisotopenzusammensetzung aufweisen (-0.29 ‰ bis +0.01 ‰ im δ238U) im Vergleich zu den Hauptflüssen (c(U) = 5.19 nmol/kg bis 11.69 nmol/kg und d238U = -0.31 ‰ bis +0.13 ‰) aufweisen. Die untersuchten Gesteinsproben fallen alle in einen recht schmalen Bereich von δ238U, zwischen -0.45 ‰ und -0.21 ‰, mit einem Durchschnittswert von -0.30 ‰ ± 0.04 ‰ (doppelte Standardabweichung). Deren Uranisotopenvariationen sind unabhängig von der Urankonzentration (11.8 µg/g bis 1.3 µg/g), dem Alter (3.80 Ga bis 328 Ma), der Probenlokalität und Grad der Differenzierung. Basierend auf den Ergebnissen der Hauptflüsse, die die Uranhauptquelle für den Ozean darstellen, schlagen wir für zukünftige Berechnungen in der Massenbilanz des Urans einen neuen Wert als beste Abschätzung für die Quelle des Urans im Ozean vor, δ238U = -0.23 ‰. Die Produkte der hydrothermalen Alteration, alterierte Basalte und Kalziumkarbonatgänge, zeigten etwas stärkere Isotopenvariationen (δ238U zwischen -0.63 ‰ und +0.27 ‰) als erwartet und die hydrothermalen Fluide wiesen eine etwas leichtere Uranisotopenzusammensetzung als Meerwasser ((-0.43 ± 0.25) ‰ vs. (-0.37 ± 0.03) ‰) auf. Diese Ergebnisse sind in Übereinstimmung mit einem Modell, dass annimmt, dass die beobachtete Isotopenfraktionierung hauptsächlich ein Ergebnis von Redoxprozessen ist, z.B. die partielle Reduktion von löslichem UVI aus dem Meerwasser während der hydrothermalen Alteration, was zu einer Anreicherung der schweren Uranisotope in der reduzierten Uranspezies (UIV) führt und 2) das bevorzugte Entfernen von UIV aus den hydrothermalen Fluid und der Einbau in die alterierte ozeanische Kruste. Durch diesen Prozess wird das hydrothermale Fluid an schweren Uranisotopen verarmt und somit würden auch die alterierten Basalte und Karbonate ein niedriges δ238U aufweisen, wenn sie mit dem isotopisch leichten hydrothermalen Fluid in Kontakt gekommen sind. Die Untersuchung von Wasser- und Sedimentproben aus der Ostsee und dem anoxischen Kyllaren Fjord (Norwegen) auf deren Uran- und Mo-Isotopenzusammensetzung zeigte, dass die Uranisotopenzusammensetzung der Sedimente abhängt von (1) dem Ausmaß des Uranaustrags aus der Wassersäule (in einer ähnlichen Art und Weise wie bei den Molybdänisotopen) und (2) der Sedimentationsrate, d.h. der Fraktion von authigenem- relativ zum dedritischen Uran in den Sedimenten. Aufgrund der hohen Sedimentationsrate zeigen die Sedimente aus dem Kyllaren Fjord nur eine moderate authigene Urananreicherung und eine leichtere Uranisotopenzusammensetzung als Sedimente aus dem Schwarzen Meer. In den anoxischen Becken der Ostsee erfolgt dagegen eine starke Mo- und schwache U-Isotopenfraktionierung zwischen Wasser und Sediment. Durch die regelmäßigen auftretenden Spülereignisse mit sauerstoffreichem Wasser wurden vermutlich die ursprünglichen anoxischen Mo- und U-Isotopensignaturen der Sedimente verändert. Demzufolge müssen die Sedimente durchgehend anoxischen Bedingungen ausgesetzt sein, um eine Mo- und U-Isotopensignatur von den Redoxbedingungen während der Ablagerungen zu speichern. Der Vergleich zwischen Molybdän- und Uranisotopen in der Ostsee und dem anoxischen Kyllaren Fjord zeigte, dass sich Uran- und Molybdänisotope in stark euxinischen Wassersäulen (c(H2S) > 11 µmol/L) entgegengesetzt verhalten. Dementsprechend ergänzen sich die beiden Isotopensysteme und können genutzt werden, um die Ablagerungsbedingungen in abgeschlossenen Becken und die Redoxentwicklung des Paläoozeans zu untersuchen.

- Aspects of electron correlations in two-dimensional metals (2015)
- Landau's Fermi liquid theory has been the main tool for investigating interactions between fermions at low energies for more than 50 years. It has been successful in describing, amongst other things, the mass enhancement in ³He and the thermodynamics of a large class of metals. Whilst this in itself is remarkable given the phenomenological nature of the original theory, experiments have found several materials, such as some superconducting and heavy-fermion materials, which cannot be described within the Fermi liquid picture. Because of this, many attempts have been made to understand these ''non Fermi liquid'' phases from a theoretical perspective. This will be the broad topic of the first part of this thesis and will be investigated in Chapter 2, where we consider a two-dimensional system of electrons interacting close to a Fermi surface through a damped gapless bosonic field. Such systems are known to give rise to non Fermi liquid behaviour. In particular we will consider the Ising-nematic quantum critical point of a two-dimensional metal. At this quantum critical point the Fermi liquid theory breaks down and the fermionic self-energy acquires the non Fermi liquid like {omega}²/³ frequency dependence at lowest order and within the canonical Hertz-Millis approach to quantum criticality of interacting fermions. Previous studies have however shown that, due to the gapless nature of the electronic single-particle excitations, the exponent of 2/3 is modified by an anomalous dimension {eta_psi} which changes, not only the exponent of the frequency dependence, but also the exponent of the momentum dependence of the self-energy. These studies also show that the usual 1/N-expansion breaks down for this problem. We therefore develop an alternative approach to calculate the anomalous dimensions based on the functional renormalization group, which will be introduced in the introductory Chapter 1. Doing so we will be able to calculate both the anomalous dimension renormalizing the exponent of the frequency dependence and the exponent renormalizing the momentum dependence of the self-energy. Moreover we will see that an effective interaction between the bosonic fields, mediated by the fermions, is crucial in order to obtain these renormalizations. In the second part of this thesis, presented in Chapter 3, we return to Fermi liquid theory itself. Indeed, despite its conceptual simplicity of expressing interacting electrons through long-lived quasi-particles which behave in a similar fashion as free particles, albeit with renormalized parameters, it remains an active area of research. In particular, in order to take into account the full effects of interactions between quasi-particles, it is crucial to consider specific microscopic models. One such effect, which is not captured by the phenomenological theory itself, is the appearance of non-analytic terms in the expansions of various thermodynamic quantities such as heat-capacity and susceptibility with respect to an external magnetic field, temperature, or momentum. Such non-analyticities may have a large impact on the phase diagram of, for example, itinerant electrons near a ferromagnetic quantum phase transition. Inspired by this we consider a system of interacting electrons in a weak external magnetic field within Fermi liquid theory. For this system we calculate various quasi-particle properties such as the quasi-particle residue, momentum-renormalization factor, and a renormalization factor which relates to the self-energy on the Fermi surface. From these renormalization factors we then extract physical quantities such as the renormalized mass and renormalized electron Lande g-factor. By calculating the renormalization factors within second order perturbation theory numerically and analytically, using a phase-space decomposition, we show that all renormalization factors acquire a non-analytic term proportional to the absolute value of the magnetic field. We moreover explicitly calculate the prefactors of these terms and find that they are all universal and determined by low-energy scattering processes which we classify. We also consider the non-analytic contributions to the same renormalization factors at finite temperatures and for finite external frequencies and discuss possible experimental ways of measuring the prefactors. Specifically we find that the tunnelling density of states and the conductivity acquire a non-analytic dependence on magnetic field (and temperature) coming from the momentum-renormalization factor. For the latter we discuss how this relates to previous works which show the existence of non-analyticities in the conductivity at first order in the interaction.

- Forming the future lawyers' communicative competence: the experience of higher education in Ukraine and Germany (2014)
- In the article the state of forming of communicative competence of future lawyers in higher education of Ukraine and Germany is analyzed. There is made the comparative description of preparation of the students of law faculty with an accent on forming of communicative competence on the example of the University of modern knowledge (Ukraine) and Frankfort university is named after Goethe (Germany). It is drawn the conclusion, that the structure of professional preparation of future lawyers is folded educational and cognitive, research constituents, and also productive practice. A main place is taken to conception of communicative preparation of the future lawyers, the essence of it consists in integration of the special courses of the special and professional disciplines, in continuous perfection of skills of the verbal and writing broadcasting, receptions of analytical mental work, that need knowledge. It is also outlined the aim of productive practice of future lawyers in Ukraine that begins from the second course: the forming of professional abilities and skills of acceptance of independent decisions; the education of necessity systematic to proceed the knowledge, to promote a legal culture and professional legal consciousness; to teach to apply knowledge in practical activity. In Germany the practice for future lawyers begins from the first course and lasts two years in legal establishments (from civil cases, court from criminal cases or office of public prosecutor, administrative and managerial establishments, advocacy). The sign line of studies is an active collaboration with the faculties of law of the foreign states. All these factors assist the forming of communicative competence of lawyers.

- Interplay between endothelin and erythropoietin in astroglia: the role in protection against hypoxia (2014)
- We show that, under in vitro conditions, the vulnerability of astroglia to hypoxia is reflected by alterations in endothelin (ET)-1 release and capacity of erythropoietin (EPO) to regulate ET-1 levels. Exposure of cells to 24 h hypoxia did not induce changes in ET-1 release, while 48–72 h hypoxia resulted in increase of ET-1 release from astrocytes that could be abolished by EPO. The endothelin receptor type A (ETA) antagonist BQ123 increased extracellular levels of ET-1 in human fetal astroglial cell line (SV-FHAS). The survival and proliferation of rat primary astrocytes, neural precursors, and neurons upon hypoxic conditions were increased upon administration of BQ123. Hypoxic injury and aging affected the interaction between the EPO and ET systems. Under hypoxia EPO decreased ET-1 release from astrocytes, while ETA receptor blockade enhanced the expression of EPO mRNA and EPO receptor in culture-aged rat astroglia. The blockade of ETA receptor can increase the availability of ET-1 to the ETB receptor and can potentiate the neuroprotective effects of EPO. Thus, the new therapeutic use of combined administration of EPO and ETA receptor antagonists during hypoxia-associated neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) can be suggested.

- From microscopic interactions to the dynamics of the fireball (2014)
- We discuss recent applications of the partonic perturbative QCD based cascade model BAMPS with focus on heavy-ion phenomenology in the hard and soft momentum range. First, the elliptic flow and suppression of charm and bottom quarks are studied at LHC energies. Thereafter, we compare in a detailed study the standard Gunion-Bertsch approximation of the matrix elements for inelastic processes to the exact results in leading order perturbative QCD. Since a disagreement is found, we propose an improved Gunion-Bertsch matrix element, which agrees with the exact result in all phase space regions.

- Emissivity and conductivity of parton-hadron matter (2014)
- We investigate the properties of the QCD matter across the deconfinement phase transition. In the scope of the parton-hadron string dynamics (PHSD) transport approach, we study the strongly interacting matter in equilibrium as well as the out-of equilibrium dynamics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We present here in particular the results on the electromagnetic radiation, i.e. photon and dilepton production, in relativistic heavy-ion collisions and the relevant correlator in equilibrium, i.e. the electric conductivity. By comparing our calculations for the heavy-ion collisions to the available data, we determine the relative importance of the various production sources and address the possible origin of the observed strong elliptic flow ν2 of direct photons.

- Fusion using time-dependent density-constrained DFT (2014)
- We present results for calculating fusion cross-sections using a new microscopic approach based on a time-dependent density-constrained DFT calculations. The theory is implemented by using densities and other information obtained from TDDFT time-evolution of the nuclear system as a constraint on the density for DFT calculations.

- Decays of open charmed mesons in the extended Linear Sigma Model (2014)
- We enlarge the so-called extended linear Sigma model (eLSM) by including the charm quark according to the global U(4)r × U(4)l chiral symmetry. In the eLSM, besides scalar and pseudoscalar mesons, also vector and axial-vector mesons are present. Almost all the parameters of the model were fixed in a previous study of mesons below 2 GeV. In the extension to the four-flavor case, only three additional parameters (all of them related to the bare mass of the charm quark) appear.We compute the (OZI dominant) strong decays of open charmed mesons. The results are compatible with the experimental data, although the theoretical uncertainties are still large.