Lattice QCD at finite temperature with Wilson fermions
- The subatomic world is governed by the strong interactions of quarks and gluons, described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Quarks experience confinement into colour-less objects, i.e. they can not be observed as free particles. Under extreme conditions such as high temperature or high density, this constraint softens and a transition to a phase where quarks and gluons are quasi-free particles (Quark-Gluon-Plasma) can occur. This environment resembles the conditions prevailing during the early stages of the universe shortly after the Big Bang.
The phase diagram of QCD is under investigation in current and future collider experiments, for example at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) or at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). Due to the strength of the strong interactions in the energy regime of interest, analytic methods can not be applied rigorously. The only tool to study QCD from first principles is given by simulations of its discretised version, Lattice QCD (LQCD).
These simulations are in the high-performance computing area, hence, the numerical aspects of LQCD are a vital part in this field of research. In recent years, Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) have been incorporated in these simulations as they are a standard tool for general purpose calculations today.
In the course of this thesis, the LQCD application cl2qcd has been developed, which allows for simulations on GPUs as well as on traditional CPUs, as it is based on OpenCL. cl2qcd constitutes the first application for Wilson type fermions in OpenCL.
It provides excellent performance and has been applied in physics studies presented in this thesis. The investigation of the QCD phase diagram is hampered by the notorious sign-problem, which restricts current simulation algorithms to small values of the chemical potential.
Theoretically, studying unphysical parameter ranges allows for constraints on the phase diagram. Of utmost importance is the clarification of the order of the finite temperature transition in the Nf=2 chiral limit at zero chemical potential. It is not known if it is of first or second order. To this end, simulations utilising Twisted Mass Wilson fermions aiming at the chiral limit are presented in this thesis.
Another possibility is the investigation of QCD at purely imaginary chemical potential. In this region, QCD is known to posses a rich phase structure, which can be used to constrain the phase diagram of QCD at real chemical potential and to clarify the nature of the Nf=2 chiral limit. This phase structure is studied within this thesis, in particular the nature of the Roberge-Weiss endpoint is mapped out using Wilson fermions.
Real time observables for the Quark-Gluon Plasma from the lattice
Time-resolved crystallization of deeply cooled liquid hydrogen isotopes
- This thesis serves two main purposes:
1. The introduction of a novel experimental method to investigate phase change dynamics of supercooled liquids
2. First-time measurements for the crystallization behaviour for hydrogen isotopes under various conditions
1) The new method is established by the synergy of a liquid microjet of ~ 5 µm diameter and a scattering technique with high spatial resolution, here linear Raman spectroscopy. Due to the high directional stability and the known velocity of the liquid filament, its traveling axis corresponds to a time axis static in space. Utilizing evaporative cooling in a vacuum environment, the propagating liquid cools down rapidly and eventually experiences a phase transition to the crystalline state. This temporal evolution is probed along the filament axis, ultimately resulting in a time resolution of 10 ns. The feasibility of this approach is proven successfully within the following experiments.
2) A main object of study are para-hydrogen liquid filaments. Raman spectra reveal a temperature gradient of the liquid across the filament. This behaviour can quantitatively be reconstructed by numerical simulations using a layered model and is rooted in the effectiveness of evaporative cooling on the surface and a finite thermal conductivity. The deepest supercoolings achieved are ~ 30% below the melting point, at which the filament starts to solidify from the surface towards the core. With a crystal growth velocity extracted from the data the appropriate growth mechanism is identified. The crystal structure that initially forms is metastable and probably the result of Ostwald’s rule of stages. Indications for a transition within the solid towards the stable equilibrium phase support this interpretation.
The analog isotope ortho-deuterium is evidenced to behave qualitatively similar with quantitative differences being mass related.
In further measurements, isotopic mixtures of para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium are investigated. It is found that the crystallization process starts earlier and lasts significantly longer compared to the pure substances with the maximum values between 20-50% ortho-deuterium content. A solely temperature based explanation for this effect can be excluded. The difference in the quantum character and hence effective size of the isotopes suggests a strong influence of the progressing liquid-solid-interface. Small dilutions of each para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium with neon show an even more extended crystallization process compared to above isotopic mixtures. Additionally, the crystal is strongly altered in favor of the equilibrium lattice structure of neon.
Tuning and optimization of the field distribution for 4-Rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole Linacs
Janet Susan Schmidt
- In this thesis, the tuning process of the 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole has been analyzed and a theory for the prediction of the tuning plate's influence on the longitudinal voltage distribution was developed together with RF design options for the optimization of the fringe fields.
The basic principles of the RFQ's particle dynamics and resonant behavior are introduced in the theory part of this thesis. All studies that are presented are based on the work on four RFQs of recent linac projects. These RFQs are described in one chapter. Here, the projects are introduced together with details about the RFQ parameters and performance. In the meantime two of these RFQs are in full operation at NSCL at MSU and FNAL. One is operating in the test phase of the MedAustron Cancer Therapy Center and the fourth one for LANL is about to be built. The longitudinal voltage distribution has been studied in detail with a focus on the influence of the RF design with tuning elements and parameters like the electrodes overlap or the distance between stems. The theory for simulation methods for the field flatness that were developed as part of this thesis, as well as its simulation with CST MWS have been analyzed and compared to measurements. The lumped circuit model has proven to predict results with an accuracy that can be used in the tuning process of 4-rod RFQs. Together with results from the tuning studies, the studies on the fringe fields of the 4-rod structure lead to a proposal for a 4-rod RFQ model with an improved field distribution in the transverse and longitudinal electric field.
Modelling radiation fields of ion beams in tissue-like materials
Lucas Norberto Burigo
- Fast nuclei are ionizing radiation which can cause deleterious effects to irradiated cells. The modelling of the interactions of such ions with matter and the related effects are very important to physics, radiobiology, medicine and space science and technology. A powerful method to study the interactions of ionizing radiation with biological systems was developed in the field of microdosimetry. Microdosimetry spectra characterize the energy deposition to objects of cellular size, i.e., a few micrometers.
In the present thesis the interaction of ions with tissue-like media was investigated using the Monte Carlo model for Heavy-Ion Therapy (MCHIT) developed at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies. MCHIT is a Geant4-based application intended to benchmark the physical models of Geant4 and investigate the physical properties of therapeutic ion beams. We have implemented new features in MCHIT in order to calculate microdosimetric quantities characterizing the radiation fields of accelerated nucleons and nuclei. The results of our Monte Carlo simulations were compared with recent experimental microdosimetry data.
In addition to microdosimetry calculations with MCHIT, we also investigated the biological properties of ion beams, e.g. their relative biological effectiveness (RBE), by means of the modified Microdosimetric-Kinetic model (MKM). The MKM uses microdosimetry spectra in describing cell response to radiation. MCHIT+MKM allowed us to study the physical and biological properties of ion beams. The main results of the thesis are as follows:
MCHIT is able to describe the spatial distribution of the physical dose in tissue-like media and microdosimetry spectra for ions with energies relevant to space research and ion-beam cancer therapy; MCHIT+MKM predicts a reduction of the biological effectiveness of ions propagating in extended medium due to nuclear fragmentation reactions; We predicted favourable biological dose-depth profiles for monoenergetic helium and lithium beams similar to the one for carbon beam. Well-adjusted biological dose distributions for H-1, He-4, C-12 and O-16 with a very flat spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) plateau were calculated with MCHIT+MKM; MCHIT+MKM predicts less damage to healthy tissues in the entrance channel for SOBP He-4 and C-12 beams compared to H-1 and O-16 ones. No definitive advantages for oxygen ions with respect to carbon were found.
Coulomb dissociation reactions on molybdenum isotopes for astrophysics applications
- Within the present work, photodissociation reactions on 100Mo, 93Mo and 92Mo isotopes were studied by means of the Coulomb dissociation method at the LAND setup at GSI. Experimental data on these isotopes are important to explain the problem of the underproduction of the lighter p-nuclei - 92; 94Mo - within the models of the p-process nucleosynthesis. The reaction rates used in the nucleosynthesis calculations are usually obtained within the framework of the statistical model. In order to verify the model predictions and reduce the uncertainties, experimental measurements of the reaction cross sections are required. In particular, the data on (γ,n) reactions are of interest, since these reactions were shown to dominate the p-process flow in the molybdenum mass region.
As a result of the analysis of the present experiment, integrated Coulomb excitation cross sections of the 100Mo(γ,n), 100Mo(γ,2n), 93Mo(γ,n) and 92Mo(γ,n) reactions were determined. The measurement of the 93Mo isotope is particularly important, since this nucleus is unstable, and the corresponding cross section has not been measured before.
It should be emphasized that Coulomb dissociation is a unique tool to study photoninduced reactions on unstable nuclei, which is especially relevant in the context of nucleosynthesis network calculations. However, because of to the complexity of the data analysis procedure and a number of model assumptions that are required in order to extract the Coulomb excitation cross section from the data, one of the main aspects of this thesis was to verify the method by comparing the results with the previously published data obtained with real photon beams. Integrated cross sections of the 100Mo(γ,n) and 100Mo(γ,2n) reactions were directly compared to the data by Beil et al., obtained at Saclay with photons from positron annihilation, while an indirect comparison could be performed with a recent photoactivation measurement by Erhard and co-workers. A reasonable agreement was observed for the 1n channel: a scaling factor of 0.8 ± 0.1 between our result and Beil et al. data is consistent with the scaling factor of 0.89±0.09 reported by Erhard et al. between their data and Beil et al. data. Both results are in agreement with the scaling factor of 0.85 ± 0.03 recommended by Berman et al. for the data measured at Saclay on nuclei in the respective mass region. A somewhat lower factor of 0.61 ± 0.09 between the present data and Beil et al. data was obtained for the 2n channel. The discrepancy might be explained by both the substantial efficiency correction that has to be applied to the LAND data in the two-neutron case, as well as by an insufficiently accurate assumption that the Saclay neutron detector efficiency is energy- and multiplicity- independent.
A second important topic of the present thesis is the investigation of the efficiency of the CsI gamma detector. The calorimetric information that it delivers is essential to reconstruct the energy-differential cross section from the present measurement. The data taken with the gamma calibration sources shortly after the experiment were used for the investigation. In addition, a test experiment in refined conditions was conducted within the framework of this thesis. Numerous GEANT3 simulations of the detector were performed in order to understand various aspects of its performance. As a result, the efficiency of the detector was determined to be approximately a factor of 2 lower than the efficiency expected from the simulation. This result is consistent with several independent investigations, which were performed using different methods. At the same time, a remarkable agreement between the simulated and experimental data was achieved under assumption that the inefficiency of the detector is explained by the loss of data from a number of crystals, which are randomly chosen in each event according to their averaged performance ratio (the ”on-off” effect). The reasons for the observed malfunction are yet not fully clear. Regardless of the exact reason, in the present conditions a deconvolution of the measured data from the CsI response is not possible. Consequently, within the framework of this thesis, the results are presented in terms of integrated cross sections. A search for alternative methods of data interpretation, allowing to extract energy-differential information out of the available data, in currently ongoing.
In the more recent experiments at the LAND setup, where the Crystal Ball gamma detector was used as a calorimeter, the reconstruction of the energy-differential cross section with a reasonable resolution was already shown to be feasible. It means that, even considering the uncertainties of the present experiment of the order of 10%, the uncertainties of the statistical model predictions, which are on average estimated to be within a factor of 1.5-2, can already be constrained.
The analysis of the present experiment is still in progress. As a next step, Coulomb excitation cross section for 94Mo will be obtained. The 94Mo(γ,n) reaction cannot be studied by photoactivation, since the life time of the daughter nucleus is too long (4000 y). At the same time, this reaction plays a key role in the p-process nucleosynthesis.
The future of the LAND setup - the R3B setup1 at FAIR2 - will take advantage of a three orders of magnitude higher intensity of the radioactive beams , as well as of a completely new detector system. High-resolution measurements of the energy-differential cross sections will be possible for exotic nuclei, which were never accessible in the laboratory before. Such measurements will open great opportunities for nuclear astrophysics, allowing to obtain high-quality experimental data even for regions of the nuclear chart where the statistical model calculations are not applicable.
Design of the micro vertex detector of the CBM experiment : development of a detector response model and feasibility studies of open charm measurement
Christina Anna Deveaux
- The PhD addresses the feasibility of reconstructing open charm mesons with the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment, which will be installed at the FAIR accelerator complex at Darmstadt/Germany. The measurements will be carried out by means of a dedicated Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), which will be equipped with CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). The feasibility of reconstructing the particles with a proposed detector setup was studied.
To obtain conclusive results, the properties of a MAPS prototype were measured in a beam test at the CERN-SPS accelerator. Based on the results achieved, a dedicated simulation software for the sensors was developed and implemented into the software framework of CBM (CBMRoot). Simulations on the reconstruction of D0-mesons were carried out. It is concluded that the reconstruction of those particles is possible.
The PhD introduces the physics motivation of doing open charm measurements, represents the results of the measurements of MAPS and introduces the innovative simulation model for those sensors as much as the concept and results of simulations of the D0 reconstruction.
Das Nukleon und sein chiraler Partner im Vakuum und in dichter Kernmaterie
- Kernpunkt dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung der Eigenschaften des Vakuums und des Grundzustandes von Kernmaterie anhand eines effektiven Modells. Das Lineare Sigma-Modell mit globaler chiraler U(2)R ×U(2)L-Symmetrie wurde mit (Axial-)Vektormesonen sowie dem chiralen Partner des Nukleons, der mit der Resonanz N(1535) identifiziert wird, erweitert. Die Einführung des chiralen Partners in der Spiegel-Zuordnung ermöglicht die Untersuchung zweier verschiedener Erzeugungsprozesse der Baryonenmasse: durch spontane Symmetriebrechung sowie durch einen chiral invarianten Massenterm, parametrisiert durch m0. Die Parameter des Modells werden durch experimentelle Werte der Zerfallsbreiten von N∗ → Nπ und a1 → πγ und der axialen Kopplungskonstante des Nukleons gN A , sowie durch Lattice-Berechnungen von gN∗ A fixiert. Im Rahmen dieses Modells ergibt sich für den Massenparameter m0 ∼ 500 MeV, was darauf hin deutet, dass ein beträchtlicher Anteil der Baryonenmasse nicht durch das chirale Kondensat erzeugt wird. Das Modell wird anhand des Zerfalls N∗ → Nη sowie s-Wellen-πN-Streulängen a(±) 0 validiert und zeigt gute Übereinstimmung mit dem Experiment. In Kernmaterie wird m0 durch Kondensate anderer skalarer Felder ausgedrückt, z. B. dem Tetraquark-Kondensat. Der Einfluß dieses Kondensates auf dichte Materie wird untersucht. Die Nukleonenmassen hängen stark von den Kondensaten ab und verschwinden, so wie auch die Kondensate selbst, wenn die chirale Symmetrie wieder hergestellt ist.
Low-energy effective models for two-flavor quantum chromodynamics and the universality hypothesis
Stellare Produktions- und Destruktionsraten des radioaktiven Isotops 60Fe