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- Nuclear reactions for astrophysics with storage rings (2014)
- This thesis presents experimental studies of proton capture and fragmentation reactions with heavy-ion storage rings. In one experiment, the 96Ru(p, γ)97Rh cross sections near the Gamow window have been measured at the ESR of GSI. In the other experiment, the measurement of the fragmentation yields has been carried out at the CSRe of IMP. It is essential to determine the cross sections of (γ, p) or (p, γ) reactions for p-process network calculations. However, only very few of the required cross sections have been measured and thus most of them rely solely on Hauser-Feshbach model predictions. The predictions of the model have always very large uncertainties because of the not well-known input parameters. These parameters can be constrained by experiments. Compared to the traditional activation technique, a novel method using a storage ring has been developed to measure the cross sections of (p, γ) reactions in inverse kinematics. This proton capture experiment has been performed at the ESR, where the circulating 96Ru44+ ions interacted with a hydrogen gas target at 9, 10 and 11 MeV/u. The nuclear reaction products of (p, p), (p, α), (p, n) and (p, γ) reactions were registered by position sensitive detectors. A Geant4 simulation code has been developed to distinguish the (p, γ) reaction products unambiguously from the background reactions. In this work, a relative normalization method has been utilized to accurately determine the cross sections of the (p, γ) reaction. The 96Ru(p, γ)97Rh cross section in the Gamow window of the p process is sensitive to two parameters, i.e., the γ-ray strength function and the optical model potential, while it is mainly sensitive to the γ-ray strength function in the energy region of our experiment. Therefore, our experimental (p, γ) cross sections near 10 MeV/u have been used to directly constrain the γ-ray strength function used in the model. Furthermore, the proton potential has also been constrained by combining our results with additional experimental data for this reaction in the lower energy region. The constrained model has been used to calculate the reaction rate over a wide temperature range, which is an extremely important input for astrophysical calculations. The yields of fragments produced by 78Kr fragmentation reactions have been measured at the CSRe for the Tz = −1/2 and Tz = 1/2 nuclei along or close to the paths of αp- and rp-processes. The measured yields present a significant odd-even staggering effect for Tz = −1/2 nuclides but they are small for Tz = 1/2 nuclides. The magnitude of this effect for four consecutive yields has been quantified using a third-order difference formula. It is found that the largest odd-even staggering is reached near the closed shells Z = 20 and Z = 28. Our experimental results could also compared with the data from other experiments with different projectile-target combinations. All these experimental data strongly support the closed shells Z = 20 and Z = 28 for the Tz = −1/2 nuclei.

- From tomograms to molecular structure : image processing in cryo-electron tomography (2014)
- Cryo-electron tomography (CET) is a unique technique to visualize biological objects under near-to-native conditions at near-atomic resolution. CET provides three-dimensional (3D) snapshots of the cellular proteome, in which the spatial relations between macromolecular complexes in their near native cellular context can be explored. Due to the limitation of the electron dose applicable on biological samples, the achievable resolution of a tomogram is restricted to a few nanometers, higher resolution can be achieved by averaging of structures occurring in multiples. For this purpose, computational techniques such as template matching, sub-tomogram averaging and classification are essential for a meaningful processing of CET data. This thesis introduces the techniques of template matching and sub-tomogram averaging and their applications on real biological data sets. Subsequently, the problem of reference bias, which restricts the applicability of those techniques, is addressed. Two methods that estimate the reference bias in Fourier and real space are demonstrated. The real space method, which we have named the “M-free” score, provides a reliable estimation of the reference bias, which gives access to the reliability of the template matching or sub-tomogram averaging process. Thus, the “M-free” score makes those approaches more applicable to structural biology. Furthermore, a classification algorithm based on Neural Networks (NN) called “KerDenSOM3D” is introduced, which is implemented in 3D and compensates for the missing-wedge. This approach helps extracting different structural states of macromolecular complexes or increasing the class purity of data sets by eliminating outliers. A comprehensive comparison with other classification methods shows superior performance of KerDenSOM3D.

- Measurement of the 94Mo(γ,n) reaction by Coulomb dissociation and related post-processing nucleosynthesis simulations for the p-process (2014)
- The elements in the universe are mainly produced by charged-particle fusion reactions and neutron-capture reactions. About 35 proton-rich isotopes, the p-nuclei, cannot be produced via neutron-induced reactions. To date, nucleosynthesis simulations of possible production sites fail to reproduce the p-nuclei abundances observed in the solar system. In particular, the origin of the light p-nuclei 92Mo, 94Mo, 96Ru and 98Ru is little understood. The nucleosynthesis simulations rely on assumptions about the seed abundance distributions, the nuclear reaction network and the astrophysical environment. This work addressed the nuclear data input. The key reaction 94Mo(g,n) for the production ratio of the p-nuclei 92Mo and 94Mo was investigated via Coulomb dissociation at the LAND/R3B setup at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. A beam of 94Mo with an energy of 500 AMeV was directed onto a lead target. The neutron-dissociation reactions following the Coulomb excitation by virtual photons of the electromagnetic field of the target nucleus were investigated. All particles in the incoming and outgoing channels of the reaction were identified and their kinematics were determined in a complex analysis. The systematic uncertainties were analyzed by calculating the cross sections for all possible combinations of the data selection criteria. The integral Coulomb dissociation cross section of the reaction 94Mo(g,n) was determined to be (571 +- 14 (stat) +- 46 (syst) ) mb. The result was compared to the data obtained in a real photon experiment carried out at the Saclay linear accelerator. The ratio of the integral cross sections was found to be 0.63 +- 0.07, which is lower than the expected value of about 0.8. The nucleosynthesis of the light p-nuclei 92Mo, 94Mo, 96Ru and 98Ru was investigated in post-processing nucleosynthesis simulations within the NuGrid research platform. The impact of rate uncertainties of the most important production and destruction reactions was studied for a Supernova type II model. It could be shown that the light p-nuclei are mainly produced via neutron-dissociation reactions on heavier nuclei in the isotopic chains, and that the final abundances of these p-nuclei are determined by their main destruction reactions. The nucleosynthesis of 92Mo and 94Mo was also studied in different environments of a Supernova type Ia model. It was concluded that the maximum temperature and the duration of the high temperature phase determine the final abundances of 92Mo and 94Mo.

- Die CH-Sektion des 17 MeV Injektors für MYRRHA (2014)
- Das Strahldynamikdesign für den MYRRHA-Injektor wurde im Hinblick auf eine hohe Zuverlässigkeit und Verfügbarkeit, sowie eine verbesserte Strahlausgangsemittanz, neu entwickelt und erfüllt nun die Anforderungen des Kernreaktors. In der statistischen Fehleranalyse zeigt sich die Strahldynamik der CH-Sektion als äußerst robust und liefert selbst unter pessimistischen Fehlerannahmen eine Transmission von über 99,9 %. Das neue Injektorkonzept bietet wesentliche Vorteile gegenüber dem in „MAX Referenzdesign 2012“ vorgestellten Injektordesign und wird als neues „MAX Referenzdesign 2014“ für den MYRRHA-Injektor verwendet. Die guten strahldynamischen Eigenschaften des neuen Injektordesigns konnten in Vergleichsrechnungen mit TraceWin am IN2P3@CNRS1 (Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules @ Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, Frankreich) bestätigt werden. Neben der Strahldynamik wurde das HF-Design für die benötigten Beschleunigerkavitäten entwickelt und ebenfalls für eine hohe Zuverlässigkeit und Verfügbarkeit optimiert. Das HF-Design der CH-Strukturen ist für eine größtmögliche Ausfallsicherheit auf den Betrieb mit niedrigen elektrischen Feldgradienten, weit unterhalb der technischen Leistungsgrenzen und Möglichkeiten der jeweiligen Kavität, ausgelegt.

- Development and test of a prototype for the PANDA Barrel DIRC detector at FAIR (2014)
- The PANDA experiment at FAIR will perform world class physics studies using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. A rich physics program requires very good particle identification (PID). Charged hadron PID for the barrel section of the target spectrometer has to cover the angular range of 22-140° and separate pions from kaons for momenta up to 3.5 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. The system that will provide it has to be thin and operate in a strong magnetic field. A ring imaging Cherenkov detector using the DIRC principle meets those requirements. The design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC is based on the successful BABAR DIRC counter with several important changes to improve the performance and optimize the costs. The design options are being studied in detailed Monte Carlo simulation, and implemented in increasingly complex system prototypes and tested in particle beams. Before building the full system prototypes the radiator bars and lenses are measured on the test benches. The performance of the DIRC prototype was quantified in terms of the single photon Cherenkov angle resolution and the photon yield. Results for two full system prototypes will be presented. The prototype in 2011 aimed at investigating the full size expansion volume. It was found that the resolution for this configuration is at the level of in good agreement with ray tracing simulation results. A more complex prototype, tested in 2012, provided the first experience with a compact fused silica prism expansion volume, a wide radiator plate, and several advanced lens options for the focusing system. The performance of the baseline configuration of the prototype with a standard lens and an air gap met the requirements for the PANDA PID for most of the polar angle range but failed at polar angles around 90° due to photon loss at the air gap. Measurements with a prototype high-refractive index compound lens without an air gap at a polar angle of 128° beam angle showed a good resolution of σΘC = 11.8 ± 0.7 mrad and a high photon yield of Nph = 26.1 ± 0.4. Even at polar angles close to 90° the photon yield with this lens exceeded 15 detected photons per particle, meeting the PANDA Barrel DIRC PID requirements for the entire phase space and demonstrating that the compact focusing DIRC is a very promising option for PANDA.

- Ab-initio simulations of pressure effects on structural and electronic properties of iron based superconductors (2014)
- The ab-initio molecular dynamics framework has been the cornerstone of computational solid state physics in the last few decades. Although it is already a mature field it is still rapidly developing to accommodate the growth in solid state research as well as to efficiently utilize the increase in computing power. Starting from the first principles, the ab-initio molecular dynamics provides essential information about structural and electronic properties of matter under various external conditions. In this thesis we use the ab-initio molecular dynamics to study the behavior of BaFe2As2 and CaFe2As2 under the application of external pressure. BaFe2As2 and CaFe2As2 belong to the family of iron based superconductors which are a novel and promising superconducting materials. The application of pressure is one of two key methods by which electronic and structural properties of iron based superconductors can be modified, the other one being doping (or chemical pressure). In particular, it has been noted that pressure conditions have an important effect, but their exact role is not fully understood. To better understand the effect of different pressure conditions we have performed a series of ab-initio simulations of pressure application. In order to apply the pressure with arbitrary stress tensor we have developed a method based on the Fast Inertial Relaxation Engine, whereby the unit cell and the atomic positions are evolved according to the metadynamical equations of motion. We have found that the application of hydrostatic and c axis uniaxial pressure induces a phase transition from the magnetically ordered orthorhombic phase to the non-magnetic collapsed tetragonal phase in both BaFe2As2 and CaFe2As2. In the case of BaFe2As2, an intermediate tetragonal non-magnetic tetragonal phase is observed in addition. Application of the uniaxial pressure parallel to the c axis reduces the critical pressure of the phase transition by an order of magnitude, in agreement with the experimental findings. The in-plane pressure application did not result in transition to the non-magnetic tetragonal phase and instead, rotation of the magnetic order direction could be observed. This is discussed in the context of Ginzburg-Landau theory. We have also found that the magnetostructural phase transition is accompanied by a change in the Fermi surface topology, whereby the hole cylinders centered around the Gamma point disappear, restricting the possible Cooper pair scattering channels in the tetragonal phase. Our calculations also permit us to estimate the bulk moduli and the orthorhombic elastic constants of BaFe2As2 and CaFe2As2. To study the electronic structure in systems with broken translational symmetry, such as doped iron based superconductors, it is necessary to develop a method to unfold the complicated bandstructures arising from the supercell calculations. In this thesis we present the unfolding method based on group theoretical techniques. We achieve the unfolding by employing induced irreducible representations of space groups. The unique feature of our method is that it treats the point group operations on an equal footing with the translations. This permits us to unfold the bandstructures beyond the limit of translation symmetry and also formulate the tight-binding models of reduced dimensionality if certain conditions are met. Inclusion of point group operations in the unfolding formalism allows us to reach important conclusions about the two versus one iron picture in iron based superconductors. And finally, we present the results of ab-initio structure prediction in the cases of giant volume collapse in MnS2 and alkaline doped picene. In the case of MnS2, a previously unobserved high pressure arsenopyrite structure of MnS2 is predicted and stability regions for the two competing metastable phases under pressure are determined. In the case of alkaline doped picene, crystal structures with different levels of doping were predicted and used to study the role of electronic correlations.

- Aspects of electron correlations in two-dimensional metals (2015)
- Landau's Fermi liquid theory has been the main tool for investigating interactions between fermions at low energies for more than 50 years. It has been successful in describing, amongst other things, the mass enhancement in ³He and the thermodynamics of a large class of metals. Whilst this in itself is remarkable given the phenomenological nature of the original theory, experiments have found several materials, such as some superconducting and heavy-fermion materials, which cannot be described within the Fermi liquid picture. Because of this, many attempts have been made to understand these ''non Fermi liquid'' phases from a theoretical perspective. This will be the broad topic of the first part of this thesis and will be investigated in Chapter 2, where we consider a two-dimensional system of electrons interacting close to a Fermi surface through a damped gapless bosonic field. Such systems are known to give rise to non Fermi liquid behaviour. In particular we will consider the Ising-nematic quantum critical point of a two-dimensional metal. At this quantum critical point the Fermi liquid theory breaks down and the fermionic self-energy acquires the non Fermi liquid like {omega}²/³ frequency dependence at lowest order and within the canonical Hertz-Millis approach to quantum criticality of interacting fermions. Previous studies have however shown that, due to the gapless nature of the electronic single-particle excitations, the exponent of 2/3 is modified by an anomalous dimension {eta_psi} which changes, not only the exponent of the frequency dependence, but also the exponent of the momentum dependence of the self-energy. These studies also show that the usual 1/N-expansion breaks down for this problem. We therefore develop an alternative approach to calculate the anomalous dimensions based on the functional renormalization group, which will be introduced in the introductory Chapter 1. Doing so we will be able to calculate both the anomalous dimension renormalizing the exponent of the frequency dependence and the exponent renormalizing the momentum dependence of the self-energy. Moreover we will see that an effective interaction between the bosonic fields, mediated by the fermions, is crucial in order to obtain these renormalizations. In the second part of this thesis, presented in Chapter 3, we return to Fermi liquid theory itself. Indeed, despite its conceptual simplicity of expressing interacting electrons through long-lived quasi-particles which behave in a similar fashion as free particles, albeit with renormalized parameters, it remains an active area of research. In particular, in order to take into account the full effects of interactions between quasi-particles, it is crucial to consider specific microscopic models. One such effect, which is not captured by the phenomenological theory itself, is the appearance of non-analytic terms in the expansions of various thermodynamic quantities such as heat-capacity and susceptibility with respect to an external magnetic field, temperature, or momentum. Such non-analyticities may have a large impact on the phase diagram of, for example, itinerant electrons near a ferromagnetic quantum phase transition. Inspired by this we consider a system of interacting electrons in a weak external magnetic field within Fermi liquid theory. For this system we calculate various quasi-particle properties such as the quasi-particle residue, momentum-renormalization factor, and a renormalization factor which relates to the self-energy on the Fermi surface. From these renormalization factors we then extract physical quantities such as the renormalized mass and renormalized electron Lande g-factor. By calculating the renormalization factors within second order perturbation theory numerically and analytically, using a phase-space decomposition, we show that all renormalization factors acquire a non-analytic term proportional to the absolute value of the magnetic field. We moreover explicitly calculate the prefactors of these terms and find that they are all universal and determined by low-energy scattering processes which we classify. We also consider the non-analytic contributions to the same renormalization factors at finite temperatures and for finite external frequencies and discuss possible experimental ways of measuring the prefactors. Specifically we find that the tunnelling density of states and the conductivity acquire a non-analytic dependence on magnetic field (and temperature) coming from the momentum-renormalization factor. For the latter we discuss how this relates to previous works which show the existence of non-analyticities in the conductivity at first order in the interaction.

- Transmission grid extensions in renewable electricity systems (2014)
- The present work deals with the integration of variable renewable energy sources, wind and solar energy into the European and US power grid. In contrast to other networks, such as the gas supply mains, the electricity network is practically not able to store energy. Generation and consumption therefore always have tobe balanced. Currently, the load curve is viewed as a rigid boundary condition, which must be followed by the generation system. The basic idea of the approach followed here is that weather-dependent generation causes a shift of focus of the electricity supply. At high shares of wind and solar generation, the role of the rigid boundary condition falls to the residual load, that is, the remaining load after subtraction of renewable generation. The goal is to include the weather dependence as well as the load curve in the design of the future electricity supply. After a brief introduction, the present work first turns to the underlying weather-, generation and load data, which form the starting point of the analysis. In addition, some basic concepts of energy economics are discussed, which are needed in the following. In the main part of the thesis, several algorithms are developed to determine the load flow in a network with a high share of wind and solar energy and to determine the backup supply needed at the same time. Minimization of the energy needed from controllable power plants, the capacity variable power plants, and the capacity of storing serve as guiding principles. In addition, the optimization problem of grid extensions is considered. It is shown that it can be formulated as a convex optimization problem. It turns out that with an optimized, international transmission network which is about four times the currently available transmission capacity, much of the potential savings in backup energy (about 40%) in Europe can be reached. In contrast, a twelvefold increase the transmission capacity would be necessary for a complete implementation of all possible savings in dispatchable power plants. The reduction of the dispatchable generation capacity and storage capacity, however, presents a greater challenge. Due to correlations in the generation of time series of individual countries, it may be reduced only with difficulty, and by only about 30%. In the following, the influence of the relative share of wind and solar energy is illuminated and examined the interplay with the line capacitance. A stronger transmission network tends to lead to a higher proportion of wind energy being better integrated. With increasing line capacity, the optimal mix in Europe therefore shifts from about 70% to 80% wind. Similar analyses are carried out for the US with comparable results. In addition, the cost of the overall system can be reduced. It is interesting at this point that the advantages for the network integration may outweigh higher production costs of individual technologies, so that it is more favourable from the viewpoint of the entire system to use the more expensive technologies. Finally, attention is given to the flexibility of the dispatchable power plants. Starting from a Fourier-like decomposition of the load curve as it was a few years ago, when hardly renewable generation capacity was present, capacities of different flexibility classes of dispatchable power plant are calculated. For this purpose, it is assumed that the power plant park is able to follow the load curve without significant surplusses or deficits. From this examination, it is derived what capacity must at least be available without having to resort to a detailed database of existing power plants. Assuming a strong European cooperation, with a stronger international transmission network, the dispatchable power capacity can be significantly reduced while maintaining security of supply and generating relatively small surplusses in dispatchable power plants.

- Tests erweiterter Kerr- und Schwarzschild-Metriken im Rahmen der Beschreibung von Teilchenorbits, Akkretionsscheiben und Gravitationswellen (2015)
- Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden verschiedene Modellsysteme untersucht, die Metriken der klassischen Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie mit Erweiterungen vergleichen, in denen Ereignishorizonte nicht existieren müssen. Die untersuchten Korrekturterme sind durch Schwachfeldmessungen, wie sie zum Beispiel in unserem Sonnensystem durchgeführt werden, nicht überprüfbar. Es ist deshalb nötig solche Systeme zu betrachten, in denen die vollständigen Gleichungen berücksichtigt werden müssen und keine Entwicklungen für schwache Felder gemacht werden können. Es gibt eine Reihe von astrophysikalischen Systemen, die diese Bedingungen erfüllen, wie das Galaktische Zentrum oder Doppelsternsysteme. Im zweiten Kapitel der Arbeit werden Testteilchenorbits in einem Zentralpotential beschrieben und Unterschiede zwischen der klassischen und einer modifizierten Kerr-Metrik herausgearbeitet. Drei neue Phänomene der modifizierten Metrik gegenüber der Klassischen treten hier in Erscheinung. Zum einen haben Teilchen, die sich auf prograden Bahnen um den Zentralkörper drehen, ein Maximum in ihrer Winkelgeschwindigkeit. Zum anderen ist das Phänomen des frame-draggings deutlich schwächer ausgeprägt. Schließlich tritt ein letzter stabiler Orbit für entsprechend schnell rotierende Zentralkörper nicht mehr auf. Gleichzeitig sind die Unterschiede in den beiden Metriken für große Abstände (r > 10m) nahezu vernachlässigbar. In Kapitel 3 werden diese Ergebnisse auf zwei unterschiedliche Modelle zur Beschreibung von Akkretionsscheiben angewendet. Untersucht wird zum einen das Verhalten der Eisen-Kα-Emissionslinie und zum anderen der Energiefluss aus einer Akkretionsscheibe. In der Form der Eisen-Kα-Emissionslinie gibt es eine deutliche Zunahme des rotverschobenen Anteils der Strahlung in der modifizierten Kerr-Metrik gegenüber der klassischen Kerr-Metrik. Die Akkretionsscheibe nach Page und Thorne zeigt unter Verwendung der modifizierten Kerr-Metrik eine signifikante Erhöhung der abgestrahlten Energie, wenn der Zentralkörper so schnell rotiert, dass kein letzter stabiler Orbit mehr auftritt. Zusätzlich gibt es hier in der Scheibe einen dunklen Ring im Vergleich zu den Bildern höherer Ordnung, die in der klassischen Kerr-Metrik auftreten. Erklärbar sind diese Phänomene dadurch, dass sich Teilchen auf stabilen Bahnen in der modifizierten Kerr-Metrik näher an den Zentralkörper heran bewegen können, als es in der klassischen Kerr-Metrik der Fall ist. Die Rotverschiebung ist für beide Fälle annäherend gleich. Kapitel 4 gibt eine kurze Einführung in die Beschreibung von Gravitationswellen im Rahmen der linearisierten Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Hier wird als Modell ein Binärsystem, wie etwa der Hulse-Taylor-Pulsar, betrachtet. Die Unterschiede zwischen der klassischen Theorie und einer Beschreibung unter Hinzunahme von Zusatztermen sind hier erwartungsgemäß sehr gering, da die Linearisierung der Gleichungen dazu führt, dass Starkfeldeffekte vernachlässigt werden. Für große Abstände, was in diesem Fall auch schwache Felder impliziert, sind die Erweiterungen der Gleichungen vernachlässigbar. Hier werden zum Teil auch Effekte in der klassischen ART vernachlässigt. In Kapitel 5 befindet sich ein kurzer Ausblick in die 3+1-Formulierung der Einsteingleichungen für die numerische Beschreibung von Gravitationsphänomenen. Diese Beschreibung ermöglicht es auch komplexe Systeme ohne viele nähernde Annahmen genau beschreiben zu können. Diese Systeme können zum einen Akkretionsscheiben um kompakte Objekte sein, aber auch die Verschmelzung von zwei massiven Objekten und die damit verbundenen Gravitationswellensignale. Dadurch lassen sich die Vorhersagen der ART oder etwaiger Erweiterungen präziser modellieren. Die vorgestellten Ergebnisse liegen innerhalb der Einschränkungen durch aktuelle Messungen. Zukünftige Messungen wie genauere Beobachtungen des Galaktischen Zentrums durch das Event Horizon Telescope sind aber voraussichtlich dazu in der Lage zwischen den untersuchten Metriken zu unterscheiden.

- Chopping and transport of high-intensity ion beams (2014)
- In this thesis, a novel 257 kHz chopper device was numerically developed, technically designed and experimentally commissioned; a 4-solenoid, low-energy ion beam transport line was numerically investigated, installed and experimentally commissioned; and a novel massless beam-separation system was numerically developed. The chopper combines a pulsed electric field with a static magnetic field in an ExB or Wien-filter type field configuration. Chopped beam pulses with a 257 kHz repetition rate and rise times of 110 ns were experimentally achieved using a 14 keV helium beam. Due to the achieved results, the complete LEBT line for the future Frankfurt Neutron Source FRANZ is ready to deliver a dc or a pulsed beam. At the same time, the LEBT section represents an attractive test stand for the study of low-energy ion beams. It combines magnetic lenses, which allow space-charge compensated beam transport, and a chopper system capable of producing short beam pulses in the hundred nanosecond range. Since these beam pulses are transported onwards, their longitudinal and transverse properties can be analyzed. The pulse duration and time of flight are well below the rise time for the space-charge compensation through residual gas ionization. This opens the possibility for dedicated investigations of the transport of short, low-energy beam pulses including longitudinal and transverse space-charge effects and of relevant issues like the dynamics of space-charge compensation and electron effects in short pulses.