Contrasting taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity responses to forest modifications: comparisons of taxa and successive plant life stages in South african scarp forest
Eike Lena Neuschulz
- The degradation of natural forests to modified forests threatens subtropical and tropical biodiversity worldwide. Yet, species responses to forest modification vary considerably. Furthermore, effects of forest modification can differ, whether with respect to diversity components (taxonomic or phylogenetic) or to local (α-diversity) and regional (β-diversity) spatial scales. This real-world complexity has so far hampered our understanding of subtropical and tropical biodiversity patterns in human-modified forest landscapes. In a subtropical South African forest landscape, we studied the responses of three successive plant life stages (adult trees, saplings, seedlings) and of birds to five different types of forest modification distinguished by the degree of within-forest disturbance and forest loss. Responses of the two taxa differed markedly. Thus, the taxonomic α-diversity of birds was negatively correlated with the diversity of all plant life stages and, contrary to plant diversity, increased with forest disturbance. Conversely, forest disturbance reduced the phylogenetic α-diversity of all plant life stages but not that of birds. Forest loss neither affected taxonomic nor phylogenetic diversity of any taxon. On the regional scale, taxonomic but not phylogenetic β-diversity of both taxa was well predicted by variation in forest disturbance and forest loss. In contrast to adult trees, the phylogenetic diversity of saplings and seedlings showed signs of contemporary environmental filtering. In conclusion, forest modification in this subtropical landscape strongly shaped both local and regional biodiversity but with contrasting outcomes. Phylogenetic diversity of plants may be more threatened than that of mobile species such as birds. The reduced phylogenetic diversity of saplings and seedlings suggests losses in biodiversity that are not visible in adult trees, potentially indicating time-lags and contemporary shifts in forest regeneration. The different responses of taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity to forest modifications imply that biodiversity conservation in this subtropical landscape requires the preservation of natural and modified forests.
Disentangling the relationship of the Australian marsupial orders using retrotransposon and evolutionary network analyses
Maria A. Nilsson
- The ancestors to the Australian marsupials entered Australia around 60 (54-72) million years ago from Antarctica, and radiated into the four living orders Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, Diprotodontia and Notoryctemorphia. The relationship between the four Australian marsupial orders has been a long-standing question, because different phylogenetic studies were not able to consistently reconstruct the same topology. Initial in silico analysis of the Tasmanian devil genome and experimental screening in the seven marsupial orders revealed 20 informative transposable element insertions for resolving the inter- and intraordinal relationships of Australian and South American orders. However, the retrotransposon insertions support three conflicting topologies regarding Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, indicating that the split between the three orders may be best understood as a network. This finding is supported by a phylogenetic re-analysis of nuclear gene sequences, using a consensus network approach that allows depicting hidden phylogenetic conflict, otherwise lost when forcing the data into a bifurcating tree. The consensus network analysis agrees with the transposable element analysis in that all possible topologies regarding Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, and Notoryctemorphia in a rooted four-taxon topology are equally well supported. In addition, retrotransposon insertion data supports the South American order Didelphimorphia being the sistergroup to all other living marsupial orders. The four Australian orders originated within three million years at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. The rapid divergences left conflicting phylogenetic information in the genome possibly generated by incomplete lineage sorting or introgressive hybridisation, leaving the relationship among Australian marsupial orders unresolvable as a bifurcating process million years later.
Forests, savannas, and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and dynamic global vegetation models
Stefan C. Dekker
Peter M. van Bodegom
Steven I. Higgins
Christian H. Reick
Miguel Ángel de Zavala
- The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future due to global climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are very useful for understanding vegetation dynamics under the present climate, and for predicting its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their representation of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modeling. The outcomes of the models, which include different mechanisms, are compared to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. By drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need improved representation in the examined DGVMs. The first mechanism includes water limitation to tree growth, and tree–grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna presence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass–fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savanna presence in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant forest trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant savanna trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and especially under future scenarios.
Combined transcript, proteome, and metabolite analysis of transgenic maize seeds engineered for enhanced carotenoid synthesis reveals pleotropic effects in core metabolism
- The aim of this study was to assess whether endosperm-specific carotenoid biosynthesis influenced core metabolic processes in maize embryo and endosperm and how global seed metabolism adapted to this expanded biosynthetic capacity. Although enhancement of carotenoid biosynthesis was targeted to the endosperm of maize kernels, a concurrent up-regulation of sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in the embryo was measured. Targeted terpenoid analysis, and non-targeted metabolomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic profiling revealed changes especially in carbohydrate metabolism in the transgenic line. In-depth analysis of the data, including changes of metabolite pools and increased enzyme and transcript concentrations, gave a first insight into the metabolic variation precipitated by the higher up-stream metabolite demand by the extended biosynthesis capacities for terpenoids and fatty acids. An integrative model is put forward to explain the metabolic regulation for the increased provision of terpenoid and fatty acid precursors, particularly glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate or acetyl-CoA from imported fructose and glucose. The model was supported by higher activities of fructokinase, glucose 6-phosphate isomerase, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase indicating a higher flux through the glycolytic pathway. Although pyruvate and acetyl-CoA utilization was higher in the engineered line, pyruvate kinase activity was lower. A sufficient provision of both metabolites may be supported by a by-pass in a reaction sequence involving phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme.
The genome of the basal agaricomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous provides insights into the organization of its acetyl-CoA derived pathways and the evolution of Agaricomycotina
- Background: Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is a basal agaricomycete with uncertain taxonomic placement, known for its unique ability to produce astaxanthin, a carotenoid with antioxidant properties. It was the aim of this study to elucidate the organization of its CoA-derived pathways and to use the genomic information of X. dendrorhous for a phylogenomic investigation of the Basidiomycota.
Results: The genome assembly of a haploid strain of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous revealed a genome of 19.50 Megabases with 6385 protein coding genes. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted including 48 fungal genomes. These revealed Ustilaginomycotina and Agaricomycotina as sister groups. In the latter a well-supported sister-group relationship of two major orders, Polyporales and Russulales, was inferred. Wallemia occupies a basal position within the Agaricomycotina and X. dendrorhous represents the basal lineage of the Tremellomycetes, highlighting that the typical tremelloid parenthesomes have either convergently evolved in Wallemia and the Tremellomycetes, or were lost in the Cystofilobasidiales lineage. A detailed characterization of the CoA-related pathways was done and all genes for fatty acid, sterol and carotenoid synthesis have been assigned.
Conclusions: The current study ascertains that Wallemia with tremelloid parenthesomes is the most basal agaricomycotinous lineage and that Cystofilobasidiales without tremelloid parenthesomes are deeply rooted within Tremellomycetes, suggesting that parenthesomes at septal pores might be the core synapomorphy for the Agaricomycotina. Apart from evolutionary insights the genome sequence of X. dendrorhous will facilitate genetic pathway engineering for optimized astaxanthin or oxidative alcohol production.
Integrative taxonomy and conservation status of amphibians in western Panama with an emphasis on the highlands of the Cordillera Central
- Amphibians have existed on the planet for over 300 million years and are today one of the most diverse vertebrate classes in the world with over 7000 known species and still many more to be discovered. However, several studies assume that approximately one third of the world´s known living amphibians are directly threatened with extinction, making it the most endangered vertebrate class. In relation to the relatively small land mass that is occupied by the state of Panama, it supports one of the most diverse amphibian faunas. However, in many cases the ecological role of single species in a wider context and their habitat preferences are still poorly understood and subject to ongoing research. Modern taxonomic approaches in other tropical regions have shown that former assumptions of amphibian diversity were distinct underestimations of the actual species diversity; a situation that is probably also true for Panama. Concurrently, the collection of amphibian diversity data and the description of new species is a race against time. The amphibian fauna of the world and that of Panama in particular, has suffered from an unprecedented loss of diversity over the last 30 years. The reasons are manifold and include destruction, alteration, and fragmentation of their natural habitats as the main causes, but also the deadly amphibian disease chytridiomycosis caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). In Panama and Costa Rica, this Emerging Infectious Disease (EID) spread in a wave-like manner from west to east causing mass die-offs and reduced amphibian diversity even in well-preserved habitats. The disease has primarily affected stream-associated highland species. The last large-scale evaluation of the conservation status of Panama´s amphibians through the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 2004 concluded that approximately 30% of the known species are acutely threatened with extinction. Furthermore, around 17% of the amphibian species that have been known back then lacked adequate data to be assessed. In view of Panama´s already overwhelming amphibian diversity, as well as the variety of habitats and the large number of sites that have not been examined with regard to amphibians before, I started this study with the conviction that the inventory of Panama´s amphibian diversity is far from being completed. Furthermore, when I started this study, it was uncertain if there would be any surviving amphibian species in areas where chytridiomycosis had emerged. The loss of whole amphibian communities in upland western Panama following Bd arrival led to a shift of amphibian research to lowland sites in central and eastern Panama aiming primarily on pathogen arrival and the documentation of epizootic outbreak and subsequent population decline. The situation of amphibian communities in areas post-decline was therefore largely unknown. Accordingly, the main goals of my study were to add to the taxonomic inventory of amphibians in Panama and to assess the situation of amphibian populations in habitats where chytrid-driven declines have been observed. To address these tasks I conducted fieldwork in western Panama with a focus on mountainous elevations between 1000 and 3475 m asl. Additionally, I visited different lowland sites between sea level and 1000 m asl to collect comparative material. In the period between 2008 and 2013, I conducted five collection trips to Panama that add up to a total of approximately 13 months in the field. I have sampled nine regions in western Panama and collected 767 specimens together with student collaborators, 531 of which were collected under my personal field number. Additional data obtained from those specimens include 68 male anuran call recordings, 102 standardized color descriptions of specimens in life, and 259 tissue samples that to date yielded 185 16S mtDNA sequences. This comprises the most comprehensive data set for amphibians of Panama and the first large-scale DNA barcoding approach for western Panama to date. After a preliminary DNA barcoding and subsequent comparative examination of morphological und bioacoustic data of all specimens collected, the number of taxonomic problems that needed to be addressed was higher than I previously anticipated. For most genetic lineages deeper taxonomic analyses were required to reach conclusive results. A selection had to be made with which lineages to proceed in the analyses, in view of the substantial financial and time expenditure that would be needed for a complete taxonomic revision. Therefore, I chose to run deeper analyses on one genus from each of the three amphibian orders in Panama. The genera selection depended largely on the availability of sufficient material and the scientific relevance of the respective genus.
I selected the genus Diasporus from the order Anura. These small frogs are omnipresent in many habitats and thus relatively easy to find. In addition, the genus is underrepresented in taxonomic studies. This is the first taxonomic study on the genus Diasporus to include a molecular phylogeny and the first comparison of advertisement calls between several populations from western Panama. In total, I collected 67 Diasporus specimens throughout western Panama and compared them morphologically with 49 additional specimens from Central America in collections, including the primary types of D. diasporus and D. hylaeformis. Additional comparative data were taken from literature. The DNA barcoding analysis of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene included 43 own sequences that were complemented with 15 relevant GenBank sequences. In addition, I compared the advertisement calls of 26 male individuals among each other and with call descriptions from the literature. The DNA barcoding approach revealed several unnamed genetic lineages, but in some cases also resulted in the lumping of morphologically and bioacoustically distinct specimens. Generally, the morphological examination of the collected material revealed almost no specific characters that could be used to distinguish between genetic lineages. However, it was possible to identify species using a combination of several morphological characteristics. Which ones are relevant in the individual case depends on the respective species. My extensive collection of call recordings made it possible to test for the first time the intraspecific call variation of D. hylaeformis in dependency of various parameters. This analysis showed that the dominant frequency depends significantly on the body size of the calling male; the smaller the calling male, the higher the frequency of the call. A similar relationship was observed between the call rate and temperature: the lower the temperature during calling, the lower the call rate. I suppose that these general patterns, which have already been observed in other anuran genera, are also true in other Diasporus species that could not be tested in this study. Taking into account the intraspecific variation of Diasporus advertisement calls, I consider comparative call analyses to be the best way to distinguish between species. This is especially true in syntopic species. Integration of the three lines of evidence (i.e., morphology, DNA barcoding, and bioacoustics) led to the identification of four new species, two of which (i.e., D. citrinobapheus and D. igneus) colleagues and I have already formally described.
I conducted an integrative taxonomic analysis of the western Panamanian representatives of the genus Bolitoglossa from the order Caudata, the larger of the two Panamanian salamander genera. Bolitoglossa is very species-rich with a centre of diversification in the high mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama. I collected 53 Bolitoglossa specimens and compared them to twelve specimens in collection, including the holotype and one paratype of B. gomezi. The dataset was complemented with information from the literature. Among the sampled specimens were two species considered to be endangered that have not been collected or observed for several decades; B. magnifica has not been seen for 34 years and B. anthracina has not been seen for 22 years. Further, I collected salamanders at several new locations. To date, my 16S mtDNA barcoding analysis represents the densest taxon sampling for Panamanian Bolitoglossa composed of 21 own sequences that were combined in the final alignment with 47 GenBank sequences. Even though the molecular phylogeny is based only on a single marker, the received trees largely coincide with previous studies and the nodes received high statistical support. In these trees, I retrieve all previously defined subgenera and species groups. On the basis of this molecular phylogeny, I placed B. anthracina, here sequenced for the first time, in the B. subpalmata species group. Due to the fact that B. anthracina is a large and dark colored species it had previously been placed by implication in the B. schizodactyla species group along with other large black salamanders of the B. nigrescens species complex. Moreover, I found deep divergent genetic lineages among geographically separated populations of B. minutula. However, until now there were no additional morphological characteristics detectable to distinguish between these lineages. Additionally, my colleagues and I described a new deep divergent lineage in the B. robinsoni species group as B. jugivagans, a species new to science. In contrast, I found only minor genetic differences between specimens of B. sombra and B. nigrescens. After combining morphometric data and tooth counts from literature of both species with additional data from specimens of B. sombra that I collected near the type locality, the distinguishing features blurred. In particular, including much larger specimens of B. sombra, not yet known at the time of its description, showed that the tooth count difference is dependent on the size and age of the specimen examined. Larger specimens have more maxillary and vomerine teeth. Based on this evidence I regard B. sombra as a junior synonym of B. nigrescens. Further, I revised the Panamanian distribution of the two relatively common lowland salamanders, B. colonnea and B. lignicolor. Besides filling the gaps in the fragmentary known distributions of these species, I assessed the molecular and morphological variation of both species among populations in Panama. While there was little variation in B. lignicolor, I found divergent genetic lineages among geographically distinct populations of B. colonnea that require further taxonomic examination.
Caecilians (order Gymnophiona) are among the least investigated terrestrial vertebrates. After I received a first specimen of the predominantly South American genus Oscaecilia (family Caeciliidae) in western Panama, I started to work more extensively on the taxonomy of Caeciliidae in Central America. The specimens from western Panama were not readily assignable to a single described species, but shared characters with O. elongata and O. osae. While O. osae was only known from the holotype, the type material of O. elongata was destroyed during World War II. On the basis of the original description, the unique feature in O. elongata within Oscaecilia is the absence of subdermal scales in the posterior part of the body. In a referred specimen of O. elongata mentioned in the original description from eastern Panama, this characteristic cannot be examined as it consists of head and neck only. Therefore, I used non-destructive high-resolution, synchrotron-based X-ray micro CT imaging (HRμCT) to examine cranial characters in the specimens in question and took normal radiographs to count vertebrae and to make subdermal scales visible. I found that the fragmented specimen from eastern Panama likely belongs to the well-sampled species O. ochrocephala and has not much in common with O. osae or the specimens from western Panama. Contrarily, O. osae and the specimens from western Panama share many morphological characters, but also show some differences. Genetic barcoding revealed that both species are close relatives, but the genetic distance could not be finally resolved, because 16S sequences obtained from blood samples of living O. osae were of poor quality. Thus, I compare the Oscaecilia from western Panama to O. osae in this study, but postpone a taxonomic decision until further material becomes available. Further, I designate O. elongata a nomen dubium, because the type material is lost, the type locality is not defined in more detail than “Panama”, and the original description does not allow for a definite assignment. Since previous molecular studies only considered O. ochrocephala, the monophyly of Oscaecilia was never tested before. So far, the genus Oscaecilia is based largely on a single cranial character, the eyes covered with bone. Here, I combined two 16S mtDNA sequences of O. osae from Costa Rica and two sequences from O. sp. from western Panama with two sequences of O. ochrocephala and ten sequences of four species of the genus Caecilia, the sister genus of Oscaecilia. The resulted phylogeny contains two well-supported clades, one clade containing two species of Caecilia, one from Panama and one from western Ecuador and all species of Oscaecilia tested. The other clade consists of two species of Caecilia from the Amazon basin. I therefore assume that the split in both clades is due to the rise of the Andes, what led to today’s cis-trans-Andean distribution of the two clades. For now, to restore monophyly, I suggest to place Oscaecilia within the synonymy of Caecilia until more taxa have been tested. When assessing the conservation status of the amphibian species in mountainous western Panama, I first compiled a list of known species that I potentially could have found during my fieldwork. Using the IUCN categories, I analyzed how many of the endangered species I actually found and how these are distributed over families and species groups. Surprisingly, my rediscoveries of lost species were not equally distributed among the four families that comprise most endangered amphibian species (i.e., Bufonidae, Craugastoridae, Hylidae, and Plethodontidae). While I discovered ten of eleven endangered hylids and six of nine endangered plethodontids, I found only one of four endangered bufonids and none of the nine endangered craugastorids. I assume that the secretive living plethodontids, for which no Bd related declines have been documented, were just overlooked in the past decades. In contrast, I propose that hylids, in which Bd related population decline is well documented, developed distinct evolutionary solutions permitting coexistence with the pathogen. The situation is obviously different in bufonids and craugastorids, where I found no signs of population recoveries at present. So far, the only surviving populations of species from these families exist in climatic or physiographic niches that have probably shielded them from Bd. My data confirm the current view that the risk for naïve amphibian populations to decline during Bd epizootics is predicted by ecological traits (e.g., aquatic index, vertical distribution) and not dependent on taxonomic affiliation. However, I propose that only certain amphibian families (e.g., hylids and centrolenids) have the ability to acquire immunity solutions to coexist with the pathogen during enzootic stages. This is a very new perspective on the worst infectious disease in amphibians worldwide, allowing for new research approaches to understand the host-pathogen dynamics. Moreover, I examined where the share of surviving endangered amphibian species is particularly high in mountainous western Panama. As was to be expected, most of the endangered species are found within the boundaries of protected areas. One exception is the unprotected Cerro Colorado region in the Comarca Ngöbe-Buglé that provides habitat for a wide variety of endangered and undiscovered amphibian species. Nonetheless, planned open pit mining would destroy the forests in a large part of the area. This demonstrates once again that human activities are the biggest threat to amphibians in Panama and elsewhere.
Abscisic acid negatively interferes with basal defence of barley against Magnaporthe oryzae
- Background: Plant hormones are well known regulators which balance plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. We investigated the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in resistance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) against the plant pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.
Results: Exogenous application of ABA prior to inoculation with M. oryzae led to more disease symptoms on barley leaves. This result contrasted the finding that ABA application enhances resistance of barley against the powdery mildew fungus. Microscopic analysis identified diminished penetration resistance as cause for enhanced susceptibility. Consistently, the barley mutant Az34, impaired in ABA biosynthesis, was less susceptible to infection by M. oryzae and displayed elevated penetration resistance as compared to the isogenic wild type cultivar Steptoe. Chemical complementation of Az34 mutant plants by exogenous application of ABA re-established disease severity to the wild type level. The role of ABA in susceptibility of barley against M. oryzae was corroborated by showing that ABA application led to increased disease severity in all barley cultivars under investigation except for the most susceptible cultivar Pallas. Interestingly, endogenous ABA concentrations did not significantly change after infection of barley with M. oryzae.
Conclusion: Our results revealed that elevated ABA levels led to a higher disease severity on barley leaves to M. oryzae. This supports earlier reports on the role of ABA in enhancing susceptibility of rice to the same pathogen and thereby demonstrates a host plant-independent function of this phytohormone in pathogenicity of monocotyledonous plants against M. oryzae.
Cytotoxicity and infiltration of human NK cells in in vivo-like tumor spheroids
Ernst H. K. Stelzer
- BACKGROUND: The complex cellular networks within tumors, the cytokine milieu, and tumor immune escape mechanisms affecting infiltration and anti-tumor activity of immune cells are of great interest to understand tumor formation and to decipher novel access points for cancer therapy. However, cellular in vitro assays, which rely on monolayer cultures of mammalian cell lines, neglect the three-dimensional architecture of a tumor, thus limiting their validity for the in vivo situation.
METHODS: Three-dimensional in vivo-like tumor spheroid were established from human cervical carcinoma cell lines as proof of concept to investigate infiltration and cytotoxicity of NK cells in a 96-well plate format, which is applicable for high-throughput screening. Tumor spheroids were monitored for NK cell infiltration and cytotoxicity by flow cytometry. Infiltrated NK cells, could be recovered by magnetic cell separation.
RESULTS: The tumor spheroids were stable over several days with minor alterations in phenotypic appearance. The tumor spheroids expressed high levels of cellular ligands for the natural killer (NK) group 2D receptor (NKG2D), mediating spheroid destruction by primary human NK cells. Interestingly, destruction of a three-dimensional tumor spheroid took much longer when compared to the parental monolayer cultures. Moreover, destruction of tumor spheroids was accompanied by infiltration of a fraction of NK cells, which could be recovered at high purity.
CONCLUSION: Tumor spheroids represent a versatile in vivo-like model system to study cytotoxicity and infiltration of immune cells in high-throughput screening. This system might proof useful for the investigation of the modulatory potential of soluble factors and cells of the tumor microenvironment on immune cell activity as well as profiling of patient-/donor-derived immune cells to personalize cellular immunotherapy.
Habilitationsordnung der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fachbereiche der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main vom 4. Februar 1992 : genehmigt durch Beschluss des Präsidiums der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main am 19. November 2013
Herstellung eines Phaffia rhodozyma : Stamms mit verstärkter Astaxanthin-Synthese über gezielte genetische Modifikation chemisch mutagenisierter Stämme
- Ziel dieser Arbeit war es erstmals durch eine Kombination aus chemischer Mutagenese und gezielter genetischer Modifikation (hier: „metabolic engineering“) einen Phaffia-Stamm herzustellen, welcher über die Mutagenese hinaus über eine weiter verstärkte Astaxanthin-Synthese verfügt.
Die von „DSM Nutritional Products“ bereitgestellten chemischen Mutanten wurden analysiert und über einen Selektionsprozess auf Pigmentstabilität und Wachstum hin optimiert, da die Stämme aus cryogenisierter Dauerkultur starke Pigmentinstabilitäten und ein verzögertes Wachstum aufwiesen.
Über eine exploratorische Phase wurde die Carotinoidsynthese analysiert und festgestellt, dass in den Mutanten keine Einzelreaktionen betroffen sind, welche für die Heraufregulierung der Carotinoidsynthese in den Mutanten verantwortlich sind. Hierbei wurden Limitierungen identifiziert und diese durch Transformation von Expressionsplasmiden mit geeigneten Genen aufgehoben, um damit eine noch effizientere Metabolisierung von Astaxanthin-Vorstufen hin zu Astaxanthin zu erreichen. Eine Überexpression der Phytoensynthase/Lycopinzyklase crtYB resultierte in einem gesteigerten Carotinoidgehalt bei gleichbleibendem Astaxanthin- Anteil. Durch eine zweite Transformation mit einer Expressionskassette für die Astaxanthin-Synthase asy konnte der Carotinoidgehalt weiter gesteigert und zusätzlich eine Limitierung der Metabolisierung von Astaxanthin-Vorstufen behoben werden, sodass die Transformante nahezu alle Intermediate der Astaxanthinsynthese zu Astaxanthin metabolisieren konnte (Gassel et al. 2013). Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch in den Mutanten, aus Experimenten mit dem Wildtyp bekannte, Limitierungen identifiziert und ausgeglichen werden konnten.