Implantation of silicon dioxide-based nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and pure phase beta-tricalciumphosphate bone substitute granules in caprine muscle tissue does not induce new bone formation
Samuel E. Udeabor
Ines Bettina Anne Willershausen
Robert Alexander Sader
Charles James Kirkpatrick
- Background: Osteoinductive bone substitutes are defined by their ability to induce new bone formation even at heterotopic implantation sites. The present study was designed to analyze the potential osteoinductivity of two different bone substitute materials in caprine muscle tissue.
Materials and methods: One gram each of either a porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or an hydroxyapatite/silicon dioxide (HA/SiO2)-based nanocrystalline bone substitute material was implanted in several muscle pouches of goats. The biomaterials were explanted at 29, 91 and 181 days after implantation. Conventional histology and special histochemical stains were performed to detect osteoblast precursor cells as well as mineralized and unmineralized bone matrix.
Results: Both materials underwent cellular degradation in which tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells were involved. The ß-TCP was completely resorbed within the observation period, whereas some granules of the HA-groups were still detectable after 180 days. Neither osteoblasts, osteoblast precursor cells nor extracellular bone matrix were found within the implantation bed of any of the analyzed biomaterials at any of the observed time points.
Conclusions: This study showed that ß-TCP underwent a faster degradation than the HA-based material. The lack of osteoinductivity for both materials might be due to their granular shape, as osteoinductivity in goat muscle has been mainly attributed to cylindrical or disc-shaped bone substitute materials. This hypothesis however requires further investigation to systematically analyze various materials with comparable characteristics in the same experimental setting.
Measuring information-transfer delays
Joseph T. Lizier
- In complex networks such as gene networks, traffic systems or brain circuits it is important to understand how long it takes for the different parts of the network to effectively influence one another. In the brain, for example, axonal delays between brain areas can amount to several tens of milliseconds, adding an intrinsic component to any timing-based processing of information. Inferring neural interaction delays is thus needed to interpret the information transfer revealed by any analysis of directed interactions across brain structures. However, a robust estimation of interaction delays from neural activity faces several challenges if modeling assumptions on interaction mechanisms are wrong or cannot be made. Here, we propose a robust estimator for neuronal interaction delays rooted in an information-theoretic framework, which allows a model-free exploration of interactions. In particular, we extend transfer entropy to account for delayed source-target interactions, while crucially retaining the conditioning on the embedded target state at the immediately previous time step. We prove that this particular extension is indeed guaranteed to identify interaction delays between two coupled systems and is the only relevant option in keeping with Wiener’s principle of causality. We demonstrate the performance of our approach in detecting interaction delays on finite data by numerical simulations of stochastic and deterministic processes, as well as on local field potential recordings. We also show the ability of the extended transfer entropy to detect the presence of multiple delays, as well as feedback loops. While evaluated on neuroscience data, we expect the estimator to be useful in other fields dealing with network dynamics.
kurz und kn@pp news : Nr. 27
Influence of a six month endurance exercise program on the immune function of prostate cancer patients undergoing Antiandrogen- or Chemotherapy: design and rationale of the ProImmun study
Eva Maria Zopf
Freerk T. Baumann
- Background: Exercise seems to minimize prostate cancer specific mortality risk and treatment related side effects like fatigue and incontinence. However the influence of physical activity on the immunological level remains uncertain. Even prostate cancer patients undergoing palliative treatment often have a relatively long life span compared to other cancer entities. To optimize exercise programs and their outcomes it is essential to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Further, it is important to discriminate between different exercise protocols and therapy regimes.
Methods/Design: The ProImmun study is a prospective multicenter patient preference randomized controlled trial investigating the influence of a 24 week endurance exercise program in 80–100 prostate cancer patients by comparing patients undergoing Antiandrogen therapy combined with exercise (AE), Antiandrogen therapy without exercise (A), Chemotherapy with exercise(CE) or Chemotherapy without exercise (C). The primary outcome of the study is a change in prostate cancer relevant cytokines and hormones (IL-6, MIF, IGF-1, Testosterone). Secondary endpoints are immune cell ratios, oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity levels, VO2 peak, fatigue and quality of life. Patients of the intervention group exercise five times per week, while two sessions are supervised. During the supervised sessions patients (AE and CE) exercise for 33 minutes on a bicycle ergometer at 70-75% of their VO2 peak. To assess long term effects and sustainability of the intervention two follow-up assessments are arranged 12 and 18 month after the intervention.
Discussion: The ProImmun study is the first trial which primarily investigates immunological effects of a six month endurance exercise program in prostate cancer patients during palliative care. Separating patients treated with Antiandrogen therapy from those who are additionally treated with Chemotherapy might allow a more specific view on the influence of endurance training interventions and the impact of different therapy protocols on the immune function.
Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00004739
Phase I study of everolimus and mitomycin C for patients with metastatic esophagogastric adenocarcinoma
- This study aimed at determining the recommended dose of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus in combination with mitomycin C (MMC) in patients with previously treated metastatic esophagogastric cancer. In this phase I trial, patients received escalated doses of oral everolimus (5, 7.5, and 10 mg/day) in combination with intravenous MMC 5 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. Endpoints were the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), safety, and response rates. Tumor tissues were tested for HER2-status and mutations in the PTEN, PIK3CA, AKT1, CTNNB1, and E-cadherin type 1 genes. Sixteen patients (12 male, four female) with gastric/gastroesophageal junction cancer were included. All patients were previously treated with a platinum-based chemotherapy. Treatment cohorts were: 5 mg/day, three patients; 7.5 mg/day, three patients; and 10 mg/day, 10 patients. No DLTs occurred during dose escalation. Most frequent grade 3 toxicities were leukopenia (18.8%) and neutropenia (18.8%). All other grade 3 toxicities were below 10%. No grade 4 toxicities occurred. Three (18.8%) patients experienced partial responses and four patients had stable disease (SD). Antitumor activity according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST)-criteria was highest in the 10 mg/day cohort. No associations between HER2-status or detected mutations and response were observed. The recommended dose of everolimus combined with MMC is 10 mg/day. Encouraging signs of antitumor activity were seen (http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov; Clinical trial registration number: NCT01042782).
Neue Linsensysteme und Implantate
- Meeting Abstract: Verein Rheinisch-Westfälischer Augenärzte. 175. Versammlung des Vereins Rheinisch-Westfälischer Augenärzte. Bochum, 01.-02.02.2013.
Im Rahmen des Vortrags wird zunächst ein Überblick über die aktuell angewandten Linsensysteme in der (refraktiven) Kataraktchirurgie sowie im Rahmen des RLA gesprochen. Hierzu zählen die monofokalen sphärischen Standardlinsen, aber auch asphärische, torische und multifokale Implantate.
Speziell wird auf die Ergebnisse einer Studie zu einem neuen multifokalen-torischen Implantat eingegangen. Der Schwerpunkt des Vortrages liegt dann weiterhin auf den trifokalen Korrektionsmöglichkeiten. Zum einen wird die sog. binokulare Trifokalität, bei der zwei multifokale Intraokularlinsen unterschiedlicher Addition implantiert werden, besprochen. Durch die Anpassung jeweils eines Auges an den Intermediär- bzw. Nahbereich soll so bei verringerten optischen Phänomenen ein deutliches Sehen in drei Hauptdistanzen ermöglicht werden. Weiterhin befasst sich der Vortrag aber auch mit den neuen echten trifokalen Optiksystemen, welche ebenfalls deutliches Sehen in verschiedenen Entfernungen gewährleisten können.
Im dritten Teil des Vortrages werden aktuelle Langzeitergebnisse aus einer FDA Studie zur Evaluation einer kammerwinkelgestützten phaken Intraokularlinse, mit speziellem Augenmerk auf den cornealen Endothelzellverlust, sowie eine neuartige sulcusgestütze phake Intraokularlinse mit zentralem Loch zur Glaukomvermeidung vorgestellt.
The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial
Christine M. Freitag
Anne K. Kroeger
Cornelia Ursula Kunz
- Background: Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU.
Methods/design: The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres.
Discussion: This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings.
Trial registration: ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.
Borrelia valaisiana resist complement-mediated killing independently of the recruitment of immune regulators and inactivation of complement components
Peter F. Zipfel
- Spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato complex differ in their resistance to complement-mediated killing, particularly in regard to human serum. In the present study, we elucidate the serum and complement susceptibility of B. valaisiana, a genospecies with the potential to cause Lyme disease in Europe as well as in Asia. Among the investigated isolates, growth of ZWU3 Ny3 was not affected while growth of VS116 and Bv9 was strongly inhibited in the presence of 50% human serum. Analyzing complement activation, complement components C3, C4 and C6 were deposited on the surface of isolates VS116 and Bv9, and similarly the membrane attack complex was formed on their surface. In contrast, no surface-deposited components and no aberrations in cell morphology were detected for serum-resistant ZWU3 Ny3. While further investigating the protective role of bound complement regulators in mediating complement resistance, we discovered that none of the B. valaisiana isolates analyzed bound complement regulators Factor H, Factor H-like protein 1, C4b binding protein or C1 esterase inhibitor. In addition, B. valaisiana also lacked intrinsic proteolytic activity to degrade complement components C3, C3b, C4, C4b, and C5. Taken together, these findings suggest that certain B. valaisiana isolates differ in their capability to resist complement-mediating killing by human serum. The molecular mechanism utilized by B. valaisiana to inhibit bacteriolysis appears not to involve binding of the key host complement regulators of the alternative, classical, and lectin pathways as already known for serum-resistant Lyme disease or relapsing fever borreliae.
Attention-dependent modulation of neural activity in primary sensorimotor cortex
Notger Germar Müller
- Although motor tasks at most times do not require much attention, there are findings that attention can alter neuronal activity not only in higher motor areas but also within the primary sensorimotor cortex. However, these findings are equivocal as attention effects were investigated only in either the dominant or the nondominant hand; attention was operationalized either as concentration (i.e., attention directed to motor task) or as distraction (i.e., attention directed away from motor task), the complexity of motor tasks varied and almost no left-handers were studied. Therefore, in this study, both right- and left-handers were investigated with an externally paced button press task in which subjects typed with the index finger of the dominant, nondominant, or both hands. We introduced four different attention levels: attention-modulation-free, distraction (counting backward), concentration on the moving finger, and divided concentration during bimanual movement. We found that distraction reduced neuronal activity in both contra- and ipsilateral primary sensorimotor cortex when the nondominant hand was tapping in both handedness groups. At the same time, distraction activated the dorsal frontoparietal attention network and deactivated the ventral default network. We conclude that difficulty and training status of both the motor and cognitive task, as well as usage of the dominant versus the nondominant hand, are crucial for the presence and magnitude of attention effects on sensorimotor cortex activity. In the case of a very simple button press task, attention modulation is seen for the nondominant hand under distraction and in both handedness groups.
Resistance after chronic application of the HDAC-inhibitor valproic acid is associated with elevated Akt activation in renal cell carcinoma in vivo
Roman A. Blaheta
- Targeted drugs have significantly improved the therapeutic options for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, resistance often develops, negating the benefit of these agents. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance towards the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) in a RCC in vivo model were investigated. NMRI:nu/nu mice were transplanted with Caki-1 RCC cells and then treated with VPA (200 mg/kg/day). Controls remained untreated. Based on tumor growth dynamics, the mice were divided into “responders” and “non-responders” to VPA. Histone H3 and H4 acetylation and expression of cell signaling and cell cycle regulating proteins in the RCC mouse tumors were evaluated by Western blotting. Tumor growth of VPA responders was significantly diminished, whereas that of VPA non-responders even exceeded control values. Cdk1, 2 and 4 proteins were strongly enhanced in the non-responders. Importantly, Akt expression and activity were massively up-regulated in the tumors of the VPA non-responders. Chronic application (12 weeks) of VPA to Caki-1 cells in vitro evoked a distinct elevation of Akt activity and cancer cells no longer responded with cell growth reduction, compared to the short 2 week treatment. We assume that chronic use of an HDAC-inhibitor is associated with (re)-activation of Akt, which may be involved in resistance development. Consequently, combined blockade of both HDAC and Akt may delay or prevent drug resistance in RCC.