A global data set of the extent of irrigated land from 1900 to 2005
Bridget R. Scanlon
- Irrigation intensifies land use by increasing crop yield but also impacts water resources. It affects water and energy balances and consequently the microclimate in irrigated regions. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of irrigated land is important for hydrological and crop modelling, global change research, and assessments of resource use and management. Information on the historical evolution of irrigated lands is limited. The new global historical irrigation data set (HID) provides estimates of the temporal development of the area equipped for irrigation (AEI) between 1900 and 2005 at 5 arcmin resolution. We collected sub-national irrigation statistics from various sources and found that the global extent of AEI increased from 63 million ha (Mha) in 1900 to 111 Mha in 1950 and 306 Mha in 2005. We developed eight gridded versions of time series of AEI by combining sub-national irrigation statistics with different data sets on the historical extent of cropland and pasture. Different rules were applied to maximize consistency of the gridded products to sub-national irrigation statistics or to historical cropland and pasture data sets. The HID reflects very well the spatial patterns of irrigated land as shown on historical maps for the western United States (around year 1900) and on a global map (around year 1960). Mean aridity on irrigated land increased and mean natural river discharge on irrigated land decreased from 1900 to 1950 whereas aridity decreased and river discharge remained approximately constant from 1950 to 2005. The data set and its documentation are made available in an open-data repository at https://mygeohub.org/publications/8 (doi:10.13019/M20599).
Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particles residuals sampled by three different techniques
- During January/February 2013, at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch a measurement campaign was carried out, which was centered on atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INP) and ice particle residuals (IPR). Three different techniques for separation of INP and IPR from the non-ice-active particles are compared. The Ice Selective Inlet (ISI) and the Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI) sample ice particles from mixed phase clouds and allow for the analysis of the residuals. The combination of the Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) and the Ice Nuclei Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor (IN-PCVI) provides ice-activating conditions to aerosol particles and extracts the activated INP for analysis.Collected particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine size, chemical composition and mixing state. All INP/IPR-separating techniques had considerable abundances (median 20 – 70 %) of instrumental contamination artifacts (ISI: Si-O spheres, probably calibration aerosol; Ice-CVI: Al-O particles; FINCH+IN-PCVI: steel particles). Also, potential sampling artifacts (e.g., pure soluble material) occurred with a median abundance of < 20 %. While these could be explained as IPR by ice break-up, for INP their IN-ability pathway is less clear. After removal of the contamination artifacts, silicates and Ca-rich particles, carbonaceous material and metal oxides were the major INP/IPR particle types separated by all three techniques. Soot was a minor contributor. Lead was detected in less than 10 % of the particles, of which the majority were internal mixtures with other particle types. Sea-salt and sulfates were identified by all three methods as INP/IPR. Most samples showed a maximum of the INP/IPR size distribution at 400 nm geometric diameter. In a few cases, a second super-micron maximum was identified. Soot/carbonaceous material and metal oxides were present mainly in the submicron range. ISI and FINCH yielded silicates and Ca-rich particles mainly with diameters above 1 μm, while the Ice-CVI also separated many submicron IPR. As strictly parallel sampling could not be performed, a part of the discrepancies between the different techniques may result from variations in meteorological conditions and subsequent INP/IPR composition. The observed differences in the particle group abundances as well as in the mixing state of INP/IPR express the need for further studies to better understand the influence of the separating techniques on the INP/IPR chemical
Southern high-latitude terrestrial climate change during the Palaeocene–Eocene derived from a marine pollen record (ODP Site 1172, East Tasman Plateau)
Lineth Arias Contreras
Peter K. Bijl
Robert B. O'Hara
J. Ian Raine
- Global warming, changes in the hydrological cycle and enhanced marine primary productivity all have been invoked to have contributed to the occurrence of widespread ocean anoxia during the Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE2; ~ 94 Ma), but disentangling these factors on a regional scale has remained problematic. We generated palynological and organic geochemical records that allow the separation of these forcing factors in a core spanning the OAE2 from Wunstorf, Lower Saxony Basin (LSB; North Gemany), which exhibits cyclic black shale–marl alternations related to the orbital precession cycle.
Despite the widely varying depositional conditions complicating the interpretation of the obtained records, TEX86H indicates that sea-surface temperature (SST) evolution in the LSB during OAE2 resembles that of previously studied sites throughout the proto-North Atlantic. Cooling during the so-called Plenus Cold Event interrupted black shale deposition during the early stages of OAE2. However, TEX86 does not vary significantly across marl–black shale alternations, suggesting that temperature variations did not force the formation of the cyclic black shale horizons. Relative (i.e., with respect to marine palynomorphs) and absolute abundances of pollen and spores are elevated during phases of black shale deposition, indicative of enhanced precipitation and run-off. High abundances of cysts from inferred heterotrophic and euryhaline dinoflagellates supports high run-off, which likely introduced additional nutrients to the epicontinental shelf resulting in elevated marine primary productivity.
We conclude that orbitally-forced enhanced precipitation and run-off, in tandem with elevated marine primary productivity, were critical in cyclic black shale formation on the northwest European epicontinental shelf and potentially for other OAE2 sections in the proto-Atlantic and Western Interior Seaway at similar latitudes as well.
The climatic and environmental conditions during deposition of phosphorites and oil shales in the Late Cretaceous upwelling system of the Negev/Israel
- The Late Cretaceous is known to be mostly affected by warm periods interrupted temporarily by a number of cooling events. The reconstruction of the paleoclimatic conditions during a period of high concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is of great importance for the creation of future climate models. We applied the recently developed method reconstructing the SST from the TEX86 (TetraEther indeX of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbon atoms).
The sample material used for the present study was obtained from the tropical Late Cretaceous southern Tethys upwelling system (Negev/Israel), lasting from the Late Santonian to the Early Maastrichtian (~ 85 to 68 Ma). On the core samples from the Shefela basin, representing the outer belt of the upwelling system and the outcrop profile from the open mine Mishor Rotem (Efe Syncline), representing the inner belt, various bulk geochemical and biomarker studies were performed in this thesis.
Derived from TEX86 data, a significant long-term SST cooling trend from 36.0 to 29.3 °C is recognized during the Late Santonian and the Early Campanian in the southern Tethys margin. This is consistent with the opening and deepening of the Equatorial Atlantic Gateway (EAG) and the intrusion of cooler deep water from the southern Atlantic Ocean influencing the global SSTs and also the Tethys Ocean. Furthermore, the cooler near shore SST usually found in modern upwelling systems could be verified in case of the ancient upwelling system investigated in the present study. The calculated mean SST in the inner belt (27.7 °C) represented in the Efe Syncline was 1.5 °C cooler in comparison to the more seaward located outer belt (Shefela basin).
Moreover, geochemical and biomarker analyses were used to identify both the accumulation of high amounts of phosphate in the PM and good preservation of organic matter (OM) in the lower part of the OSM section. Total organic carbon (TOC) contents are highly variable over the whole profile reaching from 0.6 % in the MM, to 24.5 % in the OSM. Total iron (TFe) varies from 0.1 % in the PM to 3.3 % in the OSM and total sulfur (TS) varies between 0.1 % in the MM and 3.4 % in the OSM. Different correlations of TS, TOC and TFe were used to identify the conditions during the deposition of the different facies types. Natural sulfurization was found to play a key role in the preservation of the OM particularly in the lower part of the OSM. Samples from the OSM and the PM were deposited under dysoxic to anoxic conditions and iron limitation lasted during the deposition of the OSM and the PM, which effected the incorporation of sulfur into OM.
Phosphorus is highly accumulated in the sediments of the PM with a mean proportion of 11.5 % total phosphorus (TP), which is drastically reduced to a mean value of 0.9 % in the OSM and the MM. From the correlation of the bulk geochemical parameters TOC/TOCOR ratio and TP a major contribution of sulfate reducing bacteria to the phosphate deposition is concluded. This interrelation has previously been investigated in recent coastal upwelling systems off Peru, Chile, California and Namibia. This was further supported by the analysis of branched and monounsaturated fatty acids indicating the occurrence of sulfate reducing and sulfide oxidizing bacteria during the deposition.
According to the results from the analysis of n-alkanes and C27- to C29-steranes up to 95 % of the OM was of marine origin.
Organic sulfur compounds (OSC) were a major compound class in the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction and n-Alkyl and isoprenoid thiophenes were the most abundant, with highest amounts found for 2-methyl-5-tridecyl-thiophene (28 µg/g TOC). The relatively high abundance of ββ-C35 hopanoid thiophenes and epithiosteranes is equivalent to an incorporation of sulfur during the early stages of diagenesis.
Moreover, the geochemical parameters δ13Corg, δ15Norg, C/N and the pristane/phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio, were studied for reconstruction of seafloor and water column depositional environments. The high C/N ratio along with relatively low values of δ15Norg (4 ‰ to 6 ‰) and δ13Corg (-29 ‰ to -28 ‰) are consistent with a significant preferential loss of nitrogen-rich organic compounds during diagenesis. Oxygen-depleted conditions lasted during the deposition of the PM and the bottom of the OSM, reflected by the low Pr/Ph ratio of 0.11–0.7. In the upper part of the OSM and the MM the conditions changed from anoxic to dysoxic or oxic conditions. This environmental trend is consistent with co-occurring foraminiferal assemblages in the studied succession and implies that the benthic species in the Negev sequence were adapted to persistent minimum oxygen conditions by performing complete denitrification as recently found in many modern benthic foraminifera.
Furthermore, the anammox process could have influenced the nitrogen composition of the sediments. In this anaerobically process nitrite and ammonia are converted to molecular nitrogen.
Risk Factors for the Presence of Chikungunya and Dengue Vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), Their Altitudinal Distribution and Climatic Determinants of Their Abundance in Central Nepal
Hari Datt Joshi
Robert B. O’Hara
Natural fractionation of uranium isotopes
- Das Thema dieser Arbeit war die Untersuchung der natürlichen Variationen von den zwei primordialen Uranisotopen (238U und 235U) mit einem Schwerpunkt auf Proben, die (1) die kontinentale Kruste und ihre Verwitterungsprodukte (d.h. Granite, Shales und Flusswasser) repräsentieren, (2) Produkte der hydrothermalen Alteration vom mittelozeanischen Rücken widerspiegeln (d.h. alterierte Basalte, Karbonatgänge und hydrothermales Wasser) und (3) aus abgegrenzten euxinischen Becken (d.h. Proben aus der Wassersäule und den dazugehörigen Sedimenten) stammen. Das allgemeine Ziel war das Verständnis, unter welchen Bedingungen und Mechanismen eine Fraktionierung der zwei häufigsten Uranisotope (238U und 235U) in der Natur erfolgt, zu verbessern.
Die untersuchten Haupt- und Nebenflüsse unterscheiden sich sowohl in Ihrer Urankonzentration (c(U)) als auch in Ihrer Uranisotopenzusammensetzung (δ238U), wobei die Nebenflüsse eine geringere Urankonzentration (0.87 nmol/kg bis 3.08 nmol/kg) und eine schwerere Uranisotopenzusammensetzung aufweisen (-0.29 ‰ bis +0.01 ‰ im δ238U) im Vergleich zu den Hauptflüssen (c(U) = 5.19 nmol/kg bis 11.69 nmol/kg und d238U = -0.31 ‰ bis +0.13 ‰) aufweisen. Die untersuchten Gesteinsproben fallen alle in einen recht schmalen Bereich von δ238U, zwischen -0.45 ‰ und -0.21 ‰, mit einem Durchschnittswert von -0.30 ‰ ± 0.04 ‰ (doppelte Standardabweichung). Deren Uranisotopenvariationen sind unabhängig von der Urankonzentration (11.8 µg/g bis 1.3 µg/g), dem Alter (3.80 Ga bis 328 Ma), der Probenlokalität und Grad der Differenzierung. Basierend auf den Ergebnissen der Hauptflüsse, die die Uranhauptquelle für den Ozean darstellen, schlagen wir für zukünftige Berechnungen in der Massenbilanz des Urans einen neuen Wert als beste Abschätzung für die Quelle des Urans im Ozean vor, δ238U = -0.23 ‰.
Die Produkte der hydrothermalen Alteration, alterierte Basalte und Kalziumkarbonatgänge, zeigten etwas stärkere Isotopenvariationen (δ238U zwischen -0.63 ‰ und +0.27 ‰) als erwartet und die hydrothermalen Fluide wiesen eine etwas leichtere Uranisotopenzusammensetzung als Meerwasser ((-0.43 ± 0.25) ‰ vs. (-0.37 ± 0.03) ‰) auf. Diese Ergebnisse sind in Übereinstimmung mit einem Modell, dass annimmt, dass die beobachtete Isotopenfraktionierung hauptsächlich ein Ergebnis von Redoxprozessen ist, z.B. die partielle Reduktion von löslichem UVI aus dem Meerwasser während der hydrothermalen Alteration, was zu einer Anreicherung der schweren Uranisotope in der reduzierten Uranspezies (UIV) führt und 2) das bevorzugte Entfernen von UIV aus den hydrothermalen Fluid und der Einbau in die alterierte ozeanische Kruste. Durch diesen Prozess wird das hydrothermale Fluid an schweren Uranisotopen verarmt und somit würden auch die alterierten Basalte und Karbonate ein niedriges δ238U aufweisen, wenn sie mit dem isotopisch leichten hydrothermalen Fluid in Kontakt gekommen sind.
Die Untersuchung von Wasser- und Sedimentproben aus der Ostsee und dem anoxischen Kyllaren Fjord (Norwegen) auf deren Uran- und Mo-Isotopenzusammensetzung zeigte, dass die Uranisotopenzusammensetzung der Sedimente abhängt von (1) dem Ausmaß des Uranaustrags aus der Wassersäule (in einer ähnlichen Art und Weise wie bei den Molybdänisotopen) und (2) der Sedimentationsrate, d.h. der Fraktion von authigenem- relativ zum dedritischen Uran in den Sedimenten. Aufgrund der hohen Sedimentationsrate zeigen die Sedimente aus dem Kyllaren Fjord nur eine moderate authigene Urananreicherung und eine leichtere Uranisotopenzusammensetzung als Sedimente aus dem Schwarzen Meer. In den anoxischen Becken der Ostsee erfolgt dagegen eine starke Mo- und schwache U-Isotopenfraktionierung zwischen Wasser und Sediment. Durch die regelmäßigen auftretenden Spülereignisse mit sauerstoffreichem Wasser wurden vermutlich die ursprünglichen anoxischen Mo- und U-Isotopensignaturen der Sedimente verändert. Demzufolge müssen die Sedimente durchgehend anoxischen Bedingungen ausgesetzt sein, um eine Mo- und U-Isotopensignatur von den Redoxbedingungen während der Ablagerungen zu speichern.
Der Vergleich zwischen Molybdän- und Uranisotopen in der Ostsee und dem anoxischen Kyllaren Fjord zeigte, dass sich Uran- und Molybdänisotope in stark euxinischen Wassersäulen (c(H2S) > 11 µmol/L) entgegengesetzt verhalten. Dementsprechend ergänzen sich die beiden Isotopensysteme und können genutzt werden, um die Ablagerungsbedingungen in abgeschlossenen Becken und die Redoxentwicklung des Paläoozeans zu untersuchen.
The re-greening of the Sahel: natural cyclicity or human-induced change?
- The Sahel has been the focus of scientific interest in environmental-human dynamics and interactions. The objective of the present study is to contribute to the recent debate on the re-greening of Sahel. The paper examines the dynamics of barren land in the Sahel of Burkina Faso through analysis of remotely-sensed and rainfall data from 1975–2011. Discussions with farmers and land management staff have helped to understand the anthropogenic efforts toward soil restoration to enable the subsistence farming agriculture. Results showed that area of barren land has been fluctuating during the study period with approximately 10-year cyclicity. Similarly, rainfall, both at national and local levels has followed the same trends. The trends of the area of barren land and rainfall variability suggest that when rainfall increases, the area of barren land decreases and barren land increases when rainfall decreases. This implies that rainfall is one of the main factors driving the change in area of barren land. In addition, humans have contributed positively and negatively to the change by restoring barren lands for agriculture using locally known techniques and by accelerating land degradation through intensive and inappropriate land use practices.
Soil water retention curves for the major soil types of the Kruger National Park
Steven I. Higgins
- Soil water potential is crucial to plant transpiration and thus to carbon cycling and biosphere–atmosphere interactions, yet it is difficult to measure in the field. Volumetric and gravimetric water contents are easy and cheap to measure in the field, but can be a poor proxy of plant-available water. Soil water content can be transformed to water potential using soil moisture retention curves. We provide empirically derived soil moisture retention curves for seven soil types in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Site-specific curves produced excellent estimates of soil water potential from soil water content values. Curves from soils derived from the same geological substrate were similar, potentially allowing for the use of one curve for basalt soils and another for granite soils. It is anticipated that this dataset will help hydrologists and ecophysiologists understand water dynamics, carbon cycling and biosphere–atmosphere interactions under current and changing climatic conditions in the region.
Sensitivity of simulated global-scale freshwater fluxes and storages to input data, hydrological model structure, human water use and calibration
Hannes Müller Schmied
Felix Theodor Portmann
- Global-scale assessments of freshwater fluxes and storages by hydrological models under historic climate conditions are subject to a variety of uncertainties. Using the global hydrological model WaterGAP 2.2, we investigated the sensitivity of simulated freshwater fluxes and water storage variations to five major sources of uncertainty: climate forcing, land cover input, model structure, consideration of human water use and calibration (or no calibration). In a modelling experiment, five variants of the standard version of WaterGAP 2.2 were generated that differed from the standard version only regarding the investigated source of uncertainty. Sensitivity was analyzed by comparing water fluxes and water storage variations computed by the variants to those of the standard version, considering both global averages and grid cell values for the time period 1971–2000. The basin-specific calibration approach for WaterGAP, which forces simulated mean annual river discharge to be equal to observed values at 1319 gauging stations (representing 54% of global land area except Antarctica and Greenland), has the highest effect on modelled water fluxes and leads to the best fit of modelled to observed monthly and seasonal river discharge. Alternative state-of-the-art climate forcings rank second regarding the impact on grid cell specific fluxes and water storage variations, and their impact is ubiquitous and stronger than that of alternative land cover inputs. The diverse model refinements during the last decade lead to an improved fit to observed discharge, and affect globally averaged fluxes and storage values (the latter mainly due to modelling of groundwater depletion) but only affect a relatively small number of grid cells. Considering human water use is important for the global water storage trend (in particular in the groundwater compartment) but impacts on water fluxes are rather local and only important where water use is high. The best fit to observed time series of monthly river discharge (Nash–Sutcliffe criterion) or discharge seasonality is obtained with the standard WaterGAP 2.2 model version which is calibrated and driven by a sequence of two time series of daily observation-based climate forcings, WFD/WFDEI. Discharge computed by a calibrated model version using monthly CRU 3.2 and GPCC v6 climate input reduced the fit to observed discharge for most stations. Taking into account the investigated uncertainties of climate and land cover data, we estimate that the global 1971–2000 discharge into oceans and inland sinks is between 40 000 and 42 000 km3 yr−1. The range is mainly due differences in precipitation data that affect discharge in uncalibrated river basins. Actual evapotranspiration, with approximately 70 000 km3 yr−1, is rather unaffected by climate and land cover in global sum but differs spatially. Human water use is calculated to reduce river discharge by approximately 1000 km3 yr−1. Thus, global renewable water resources are estimated to range between 41 000 and 43 000 km3 yr−1. The climate data sets WFD (available until 2001) and WFDEI (starting in 1979) were found to be inconsistent with respect to short wave radiation data, resulting in strongly different potential evapotranspiration. Global assessments of freshwater fluxes and storages would therefore benefit from the development of a global data set of consistent daily climate forcing from 1900 to current.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Dengue Fever among the Healthy Population of Highland and Lowland Communities in Central Nepal
Krishna Kumar Aryal
Mandira Lamichhane Dhimal
Shanker Pratap Singh
Chop Lal Bhusal
- BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF) is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. In this decade it has expanded to new countries and from urban to rural areas. Nepal was regarded DF free until 2004. Since then dengue virus (DENV) has rapidly expanded its range even in mountain regions of Nepal, and major outbreaks occurred in 2006 and 2010. However, no data on the local knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of DF in Nepal exist although such information is required for prevention and control measures.
METHODS: We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey in five districts of central Nepal between September 2011 and February 2012. We collected information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding DF using a structured questionnaire. We then statistically compared highland and lowland communities to identify possible causes of observed differences.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Out of 589 individuals interviewed, 77% had heard of DF. Only 12% of the sample had good knowledge of DF. Those living in the lowlands were five times more likely to possess good knowledge than highlanders (P<0.001). Despite low knowledge levels, 83% of the people had good attitude and 37% reported good practice. We found a significantly positive correlation among knowledge, attitude and practice (P<0.001). Among the socio-demographic variables, the education level of the participants was an independent predictor of practice level (P<0.05), and education level and interaction between the sex and age group of the participants were independent predictors of attitude level (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Despite the rapid expansion of DENV in Nepal, the knowledge of people about DF was very low. Therefore, massive awareness programmes are urgently required to protect the health of people from DF and to limit its further spread in this country.