Stratigraphy and properties of soil profiles along transects in Burkina Faso and Benin and their influence on phytodiversity
Cheikh Amadou Tidiane Anne
- This thesis aims to analyse in a first step the physical and chemical properties of soil profiles along pedomorphological transects in different land used conditions (protected, partly protected as well as cultivated and pastured areas) in North West Benin and in South East Burkina Faso. The information about soils, which are carried out in consideration of the pedogenesis processes like weathering types, saprolitisation, formation of laterite crusts and denudation within the planation surfaces are therefore correlated in a second step with the structure and dynamic of woody plant around individual soil profiles. The relationship soil properties and woody plant is investigated in order to assess the reciprocal influence between the diversity of woody plants and soil characteristics within a small scale study and under different land use conditions.
A common vertical and lateral differentiation of physical and chemical properties regardless of the partly protected, protected and cultivated status of the sites can be noticed. Thus, in the cultivated site of Kikideni and in the partly protected zone of Natiabouani (South East Burkina Faso) sandy loam and sandy clay loam soil surfaces are widespread because of the occurrence of similar erosion processes like sheet wash, rill and gully erosion while in the central part of the Pendjari National Park loamy soil textures are prevailing. In fact, the steepness of the relief and the length of the slopes in the Pendjari Park seem to limit the development of some erosion forms as gully. Furthermore, the classification of soils reflects the variation of pedological processes along the transects and thus the occurrence of different soil types. The status of the sites may play an insignificant role in the differentiation of soil properties within the scale of small pedomorphological transects. A direct comparison of the vegetation type in the land use respectively partly protected and in the total protected sites (National Park of Pendjari) reveals a transition from the shrub savanna to the tree savanna. In conclusion it is important to insist on the fact that the variations of soil parameters within small slopes and the different sites are more conditioned by varying erosion processes and drainage conditions than the status protected or land use sites while the composition and diversity of plants is influenced by the status of the sites, the prevailing management tools, the pedogenetic conditions as well as the presence of wild animals like elephants. The ordination diagram shows that the organic matter is better correlated to the subgroup representing principally the sites of the hunting zone of the Pendjari Park and might be an explaining factor to the distribution of these sample sites groups. CEC ratios in the partly protected site of Natiabouani represent the highest measured in all sites. Nevertheless, statistical analysis of the CCA (canonical correspondence analysis) indicates generally a low correlation. This tendency is consolidated by the Monte Carlo test (p=0.14) which is a good indicator of species and environmental conditions. The detailed analysis of soil properties and the vegetation dynamic as well as their relationship within small pedomorphological transects represent an important pedological and botanical data collection involving different compartments. This thesis contributes to the better understanding of the savanna landscapes of West Africa and may provide essential scientific background for each development project directed towards interdisciplinary and integrative researches.
Molecular understanding of sulphuric acid–amine particle nucleation in the atmosphere
Ismael K. Ortega
Arnaud P. Praplan
Neil M. Donahue
Richard C. Flagan
Alexander N. Kvashin
Matthew J. McGrath
Filipe D. Santos
John H. Seinfeld
Paul E. Wagner
Kenneth S. Carslaw
Douglas R. Worsnop
- Nucleation of aerosol particles from trace atmospheric vapours is thought to provide up to half of global cloud condensation nuclei1. Aerosols can cause a net cooling of climate by scattering sunlight and by leading to smaller but more numerous cloud droplets, which makes clouds brighter and extends their lifetimes2. Atmospheric aerosols derived from human activities are thought to have compensated for a large fraction of the warming caused by greenhouse gases2. However, despite its importance for climate, atmospheric nucleation is poorly understood. Recently, it has been shown that sulphuric acid and ammonia cannot explain particle formation rates observed in the lower atmosphere3. It is thought that amines may enhance nucleation4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, but until now there has been no direct evidence for amine ternary nucleation under atmospheric conditions. Here we use the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN and find that dimethylamine above three parts per trillion by volume can enhance particle formation rates more than 1,000-fold compared with ammonia, sufficient to account for the particle formation rates observed in the atmosphere. Molecular analysis of the clusters reveals that the faster nucleation is explained by a base-stabilization mechanism involving acid–amine pairs, which strongly decrease evaporation. The ion-induced contribution is generally small, reflecting the high stability of sulphuric acid–dimethylamine clusters and indicating that galactic cosmic rays exert only a small influence on their formation, except at low overall formation rates. Our experimental measurements are well reproduced by a dynamical model based on quantum chemical calculations of binding energies of molecular clusters, without any fitted parameters. These results show that, in regions of the atmosphere near amine sources, both amines and sulphur dioxide should be considered when assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on particle formation.
The formation and the geochemical and thermal evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Kaapvaal craton recorded by subcalcic garnets from harzburgites and by pristine eclogites and garnet-pyroxenites
- The mantle xenoliths collected by kimberlites indicate that the subcratonic mantle underneath the Archean crust is mostly a residue of high degrees of partial melting which was subsequently reenriched. The majority of the xenoliths show cryptic metasomatism and only few modal metasomatism.
Much effort has been put into deciphering different kinds of enrichment processes within the mantle. Here, we take the approach to look into the inventory of subcalcic garnets which stem from cpx-free harzburgites and dunites. These subcalcic garnets, commonly with sinusoidal REE patterns, carry the major budget of the trace elements of their host rock. Thus, they are promising objects to study both depletion and enrichment. Most importantly, the analysis of a single grain subcalcic garnetwill provide almost all important information of the bulk rock. Our aim is to gain detailed information mainly on metasomatism on a craton wide scale by combining major, trace elements and Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic signatures from subcalcic garnets. Eventually, we will summarize the metasomatic agent(s) and processes and possibly the timing of the enrichment within the lithospheric mantle underneath the Kaapvaal craton.
Paleoenvironmental and paleoecological changes during deposition of the late eocene kiliran oil shale, Central Sumatra Basin, Indoniesia
Agus Haris Widayat
- Forty two samples of the Late Eocene Kiliran oil shale, Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia were collected from a 102 m long drill core. Palynofacies and geochemical analyses have been carried out to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental conditions and paleoecology during deposition of the oil shale. Amorphous organic matter (AOM) is very abundant (>76%). B. braunii palynomorph is present (3-16%) as the only autochtonous structured organic matter and generally more abundant in middle part of the profile. The stable carbon isotopic composition of organic matter (δ13C) varies from -27.0 to -30.5‰ and is generally more depleted in middle part of the profile. The ratio of total organic carbon to sulfur (TOC/S), used as salinity indicator, ranges from 2.5 to 15.8 and shows variations along the profile. Relatively less saline environments are observed in the middle part profile. Fungal remains are generally present only in middle part of the profile with distinct peak of abundances. The presence of fungal remains is regarded as an indication for a relatively warmer climate during deposition of middle part of the profile. The warmer climate is thought to influence the establishment of a thermocline, limiting the supply of recycled nutrients to the epilimnion. Consequently, the primary productivity in the Kiliran lake decreased during deposition of the middle part of the profile as indicated by the relatively depleted δ13C and the blooming of B. braunii. The chemocline was also shoaling during deposition of the middle part of the profile according to the higher abundance of isorenieratene derivatives of green sulfur bacteria origin. The warmer climate affected also to increase of water supply and thus less saline environments.
Tectonic subsidence is also thought to be a significant factor for the development of the Kiliran lake. The Zr/Rb ratio, an indicator for grain size, ranges from 0.4 to 1.3 and generally increases upwards along the profile. Three sudden decreases of the ratio are observed, indicating rapid change to finer grain size. These decreases are interpreted to indicate rapid deepening events of the lake due to mainly periodic subsidence. During deposition of lower part of the profile, the subsidence rates might have been relatively higher than sediment and water supply rates, resulting in a higher autochtonous fraction in the oil shale. During deposition of middle part of the profile, the sediment and water supply rates were relatively higher promoting distinct progradational sedimentation. Subsequently, the lake became more shallow and smaller during deposition of the upper part of the profile, leading to a relatively higher terrigenous input to the oil shale.
Norneohop-13(18)-ene and neohop-13(18)-ene derived from methanotrophic bacteria are the dominant hopanoid hydrocarbons. The sum of their concentrations varies from 40.6 to 360.0 μg/g TOC. The δ13C of these compounds are extremely depleted (-45.2 to -50.2‰). The occurrence of abundant bacteria including methanotrophic bacteria was responsible for the recycling of carbon below the chemocline of the lake. The effect of the recycling of carbon is observed by the presence of a concomitant depletion (about 7-9‰) in 13C of some specific biomarkers derived from organisms dwelling in the whole phototrophic zone.
4-Methylsterane and 4-methyldiasterene homologues occur in the oil shale as the predominant biomarkers. The sum of the concentrations of all homologues are about 40.3-1,009.2 μg/g TOC with generally higher values in uppermost and lower parts of the profile. Ca accounts as the predominant element in the oil shale, ranging from 5.0 to 16.7%. This element shows generally parallel variation with the 4-methylsterane homologues along the profile. This suggests that the 4-methylsteranes were derived from biological sources favoring more alkaline and more trophic environments. On the other hand, these compounds were less abundant in middle part of the profile which is consistent with less alkaline and less trophic environments promoting B. braunii to bloom.
The 4-methylsterane homologues are considered to originate from Dinoflagellates. Alternation between Dinoflagellates and B. braunii in Paleogene lake systems due to water chemistry changes are known from previous studies. Moreover, freshwater Dinoflagellates have been frequently reported to occur in the basin depocenters. In the present case, distinct alternation between B. braunii abundances and concentrations of 4-methylsterane homologues along the studied oil shale profile suggest that the 4-methylsterane homologues were derived from freshwater Dinoflagellates although dinosterane is not present in the sediment extracts. Water alkalinity and trophic level changes were most likely responsible for the alternation of Dinoflagellates and B. braunii blooming.
Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions (RECONCILE): activities and results
Marc von Hobe
Guido Di Donfrancesco
Christopher R. Hoyle
Ivar S.A. Isaksen
David R. Jackson
Imre M. Jánosi
Rod L. Jones
Sergey M. Khaykin
Johannes Christian Laube
Beiping P. Luo
Michael C. Pitts
Lamont R. Poole
Francis D. Pope
Michelle L. Santee
Matteo Siciliani de Cumis
Ole Amund Søvde
Marcel vom Scheidt
Peter von der Gathen
Kaley A. Walker
Franck G. Wienhold
Isla A. K. Young
- The international research project RECONCILE has addressed central questions regarding polar ozone depletion, with the objective to quantify some of the most relevant yet still uncertain physical and chemical processes and thereby improve prognostic modelling capabilities to realistically predict the response of the ozone layer to climate change. This overview paper outlines the scope and the general approach of RECONCILE, and it provides a summary of observations and modelling in 2010 and 2011 that have generated an in many respects unprecedented dataset to study processes in the Arctic winter stratosphere. Principally, it summarises important outcomes of RECONCILE including (i) better constraints and enhanced consistency on the set of parameters governing catalytic ozone destruction cycles, (ii) a better understanding of the role of cold binary aerosols in heterogeneous chlorine activation, (iii) an improved scheme of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) processes that includes heterogeneous nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and ice on non-volatile background aerosol leading to better model parameterisations with respect to denitrification, and (iv) long transient simulations with a chemistry-climate model (CCM) updated based on the results of RECONCILE that better reproduce past ozone trends in Antarctica and are deemed to produce more reliable predictions of future ozone trends. The process studies and the global simulations conducted in RECONCILE show that in the Arctic, ozone depletion uncertainties in the chemical and microphysical processes are now clearly smaller than the sensitivity to dynamic variability.
Results from the International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE)
Brad D. Hall
James William Elkins
Elliot L. Atlas
Donald R. Blake
Paul J. Fraser
Happell James D.
Paul B. Krummel
Montzka Stephen A.
George J. Rhoderick
Eric S. Saltzman
L. Paul Steele
Martin K. Vollmer
Ray F. Weiss
Douglas E. Worthy
- The International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE) was conducted to document relationships between calibration scales among various laboratories that measure atmospheric greenhouse and ozone depleting gases. Six stainless steel cylinders containing natural and modified natural air samples were circulated among 19 laboratories. Results from this experiment reveal relatively good agreement among commonly used calibration scales for a number of trace gases present in the unpolluted atmosphere at pmol mol−1 (parts per trillion) levels, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Some scale relationships were found to be consistent with those derived from bi-lateral experiments or from analysis of atmospheric data, while others revealed discrepancies. The transfer of calibration scales among laboratories was found to be problematic in many cases, meaning that measurements tied to a common scale may not, in fact, be compatible. These results reveal substantial improvements in calibration over previous comparisons. However there is room for improvement in communication and coordination of calibration activities with respect to the measurement of halogenated and related trace gases.
Seasonal measurements of total OH reactivity emission rates from Norway spruce in 2011
Anke Christine Nölscher
- Numerous reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere by vegetation. Most biogenic VOCs are highly reactive towards the atmosphere's most important oxidant, the hydroxyl (OH) radical. One way to investigate the chemical interplay between biosphere and atmosphere is through the measurement of total OH reactivity, the total loss rate of OH radicals. This study presents the first determination of total OH reactivity emission rates (measurements via the comparative reactivity method) based on a branch cuvette enclosure system mounted on a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. In parallel VOC emission rates were monitored by a second proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), and total ozone (O3) loss rates were obtained inside the cuvette. Total OH reactivity emission rates were in general temperature and light dependent, showing strong diel cycles with highest values during daytime. Monoterpene emissions contributed most, accounting for 56–69% of the measured total OH reactivity flux in spring and early summer. However, during late summer and autumn the monoterpene contribution decreased to 11–16%. At this time, a large missing fraction of the total OH reactivity emission rate (70–84%) was found when compared to the VOC budget measured by PTR-MS. Total OH reactivity and missing total OH reactivity emission rates reached maximum values in late summer corresponding to the period of highest temperature. Total O3 loss rates within the closed cuvette showed similar diel profiles and comparable seasonality to the total OH reactivity fluxes.
Total OH reactivity fluxes were also compared to emissions from needle storage pools predicted by a temperature-only-dependent algorithm. Deviations of total OH reactivity fluxes from the temperature-only-dependent emission algorithm were observed for occasions of mechanical and heat stress. While for mechanical stress, induced by strong wind, measured VOCs could explain total OH reactivity emissions, during heat stress they could not. The temperature-driven algorithm matched the diel variation of total OH reactivity emission rates much better in spring than in summer, indicating a different production and emission scheme for summer and early autumn. During these times, unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions contributed significantly to the observed total OH reactivity flux.
Asynchronous responses of East Asian and Indian summer monsoons to mountain uplift shown by regional climate modelling experiments
Jussi T. Eronen
- has been demonstrated in climate models that both the Indian and East Asian summer monsoons (ISM and EASM) are strengthened by the uplift of the entire Asian orography or Tibetan Plateau (TP) (i.e. bulk mountain uplift). Such an effect is widely perceived as the major mechanism contributing to the evolution of Asian summer monsoons in the Neogene. However, geological evidence suggests more diachronous growth of the Asian orography (i.e. regional mountain uplift) than bulk mountain uplift. This demands a re-evaluation of the relation between mountain uplift and the Asian monsoon in the geological periods. In this study, sensitivity experiments considering the diachronous growth of different parts of the Asian orography are performed using the regional climate model COSMO-CLM to investigate their effects on the Asian summer monsoons. The results show that, different from the bulk mountain uplift, the regional mountain uplift can lead to an asynchronous development of the ISM and EASM. While the ISM is primarily intensified by the thermal insulation (mechanical blocking) effect of the southern TP (Zagros Mountains), the EASM is mainly enhanced by the surface sensible heating of the central, northern and eastern TP. Such elevated surface heating can induce a low-level cyclonic anomaly around the TP that reduces the ISM by suppressing the lower tropospheric monsoon vorticity, but promotes the EASM by strengthening the warm advection from the south of the TP that sustains the monsoon convection. Our findings provide new insights to the evolution of the Asian summer monsoons and their interaction with the tectonic changes in the Neogene.
Distance in spatial interpolation of daily rain gauge data
- Spatial interpolation of rain gauge data is important in forcing of hydrological simulations or evaluation of weather predictions, for example. This paper investigates the application of statistical distance, like one minus common variance of observation time series, between data sites instead of geographical distance in interpolation. Here, as a typical representative of interpolation methods the inverse distance weighting interpolation is applied and the test data is daily precipitation observed in Austria. Choosing statistical distance instead of geographical distance in interpolation of available coarse network observations to sites of a denser network, which is not reporting for the interpolation date, yields more robust interpolation results. The most distinct performance enhancement is in or close to mountainous terrain. Therefore, application of statistical distance in the inverse distance weighting interpolation or in similar methods can parsimoniously densify the currently available observation network. Additionally, the success further motivates search for conceptual rain-orography interaction models as components of spatial rain interpolation algorithms in mountainous terrain.
Distance in spatial interpolation of daily rain gauge data
- Spatial interpolation of rain gauge data is important in forcing of hydrological simulations or evaluation of weather predictions, for example. The spatial density of available data sites is often changing with time. This paper investigates the application of statistical distance, like one minus common variance of time series, between data sites instead of geographical distance in interpolation. Here, as a typical representative of interpolation methods the inverse distance weighting interpolation is applied and the test data is daily precipitation observed in Austria. Choosing statistical distance instead of geographical distance in interpolation of an actually available coarse observation network yields more robust interpolation results at sites of a denser network with actually lacking observations. The performance enhancement is in or close to mountainous terrain. This has the potential to parsimoniously densify the currently available observation network. Additionally, the success further motivates search for conceptual rain-orography interaction models as components of spatial rain interpolation algorithms in mountainous terrain.