Strongly interacting parton-hadron matter in- and out-off equilibrium
Elena L. Bratkovskaya
Volodymyr P. Konchakovski
- We study the equilibrium properties of strongly-interacting infinite parton-hadron matter, characterized by the transport coefficients such as shear and bulk viscosity and electric conductivity, and the non-equilibrium dynamics of heavy-ion collisions within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach, which incorporates explicit partonic degrees of freedom in terms of strongly interacting quasiparticles (quarks and gluons) in line with an equation of state from lattice QCD as well as the dynamical hadronization and hadronic collision dynamics in the final reaction phase. We discuss in particular the possible origin for the strong elliptic flow v2 of direct photons observed at RHIC energies.
Development of specially shaped laser beams for the optimized acceleration of particles
- The laser-driven acceleration of protons from thin foils irradiated by hollow high-intensity laser beams in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration is reported for the first time. The use of hollow beams aims at reducing the initial emission solid angle of the TNSA source, due to a flattening of the electron sheath at the target rear side. The experiments were conducted at the PHELIX laser facility at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH with laser intensities in the range from 10^18 to 10^20 W/cm^2. We observed an average reduction of the half opening angle by (3.07±0.42)° or (13.2±2)% when the targets have a thickness between 12 to 14 μm. In addition, the highest proton energies were achieved with the hollow laser beam in comparison to the typical Gaussian focal spot.
Lattice QCD at finite temperature with Wilson fermions
- The subatomic world is governed by the strong interactions of quarks and gluons, described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Quarks experience confinement into colour-less objects, i.e. they can not be observed as free particles. Under extreme conditions such as high temperature or high density, this constraint softens and a transition to a phase where quarks and gluons are quasi-free particles (Quark-Gluon-Plasma) can occur. This environment resembles the conditions prevailing during the early stages of the universe shortly after the Big Bang.
The phase diagram of QCD is under investigation in current and future collider experiments, for example at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) or at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). Due to the strength of the strong interactions in the energy regime of interest, analytic methods can not be applied rigorously. The only tool to study QCD from first principles is given by simulations of its discretised version, Lattice QCD (LQCD).
These simulations are in the high-performance computing area, hence, the numerical aspects of LQCD are a vital part in this field of research. In recent years, Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) have been incorporated in these simulations as they are a standard tool for general purpose calculations today.
In the course of this thesis, the LQCD application cl2qcd has been developed, which allows for simulations on GPUs as well as on traditional CPUs, as it is based on OpenCL. cl2qcd constitutes the first application for Wilson type fermions in OpenCL.
It provides excellent performance and has been applied in physics studies presented in this thesis. The investigation of the QCD phase diagram is hampered by the notorious sign-problem, which restricts current simulation algorithms to small values of the chemical potential.
Theoretically, studying unphysical parameter ranges allows for constraints on the phase diagram. Of utmost importance is the clarification of the order of the finite temperature transition in the Nf=2 chiral limit at zero chemical potential. It is not known if it is of first or second order. To this end, simulations utilising Twisted Mass Wilson fermions aiming at the chiral limit are presented in this thesis.
Another possibility is the investigation of QCD at purely imaginary chemical potential. In this region, QCD is known to posses a rich phase structure, which can be used to constrain the phase diagram of QCD at real chemical potential and to clarify the nature of the Nf=2 chiral limit. This phase structure is studied within this thesis, in particular the nature of the Roberge-Weiss endpoint is mapped out using Wilson fermions.
Real time observables for the Quark-Gluon Plasma from the lattice
Time-resolved crystallization of deeply cooled liquid hydrogen isotopes
- This thesis serves two main purposes:
1. The introduction of a novel experimental method to investigate phase change dynamics of supercooled liquids
2. First-time measurements for the crystallization behaviour for hydrogen isotopes under various conditions
1) The new method is established by the synergy of a liquid microjet of ~ 5 µm diameter and a scattering technique with high spatial resolution, here linear Raman spectroscopy. Due to the high directional stability and the known velocity of the liquid filament, its traveling axis corresponds to a time axis static in space. Utilizing evaporative cooling in a vacuum environment, the propagating liquid cools down rapidly and eventually experiences a phase transition to the crystalline state. This temporal evolution is probed along the filament axis, ultimately resulting in a time resolution of 10 ns. The feasibility of this approach is proven successfully within the following experiments.
2) A main object of study are para-hydrogen liquid filaments. Raman spectra reveal a temperature gradient of the liquid across the filament. This behaviour can quantitatively be reconstructed by numerical simulations using a layered model and is rooted in the effectiveness of evaporative cooling on the surface and a finite thermal conductivity. The deepest supercoolings achieved are ~ 30% below the melting point, at which the filament starts to solidify from the surface towards the core. With a crystal growth velocity extracted from the data the appropriate growth mechanism is identified. The crystal structure that initially forms is metastable and probably the result of Ostwald’s rule of stages. Indications for a transition within the solid towards the stable equilibrium phase support this interpretation.
The analog isotope ortho-deuterium is evidenced to behave qualitatively similar with quantitative differences being mass related.
In further measurements, isotopic mixtures of para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium are investigated. It is found that the crystallization process starts earlier and lasts significantly longer compared to the pure substances with the maximum values between 20-50% ortho-deuterium content. A solely temperature based explanation for this effect can be excluded. The difference in the quantum character and hence effective size of the isotopes suggests a strong influence of the progressing liquid-solid-interface. Small dilutions of each para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium with neon show an even more extended crystallization process compared to above isotopic mixtures. Additionally, the crystal is strongly altered in favor of the equilibrium lattice structure of neon.
Spectral densities of the τ lepton in a global U(2)L × U(2)R linear sigma model with electroweak interaction
- This work is dedicated to the study of the vector and axial vector spectral functions of the τ lepton within the framework of a U(2)L × U(2)R Linear Sigma Model with electroweak interaction. As an effective field theory the Linear Sigma Model describes hadronic degrees of freedom based on the symmetries of the Standard Model. Therefore, the following section aims at giving a very general and concise introduction to the Standard Model and the meaning of symmetries for contemporary elementary particle physics. In the next section the SU(3)C symmetry group will be discussed in short, followed by an introduction to chiral symmetry SU(2)L × SU(2)R. In the last section of this chapter the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory of the local group SU(2)L × U(1)Y is presented. Important concepts of the theoretical framework of the Standard Model, such as the Noether Theorem, the Gauge Principle, Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking, and the Higgs Mechanism will be introduced in the context of these three symmetry groups. In Chapter 2 it will be first shown how the symmetries of the Standard Model are realised within the global U(2)L × U(2)R Linear Sigma Model and how electroweak interactions can be introduced to the model on the basis of local SU(2)L × U(1)Y symmetry transformations of the hadronic degrees of freedom. The vertices that are relevant for the vector and axial vector decay channels in weak τ decay are extracted from the Lagrangian with electroweak interaction in Chapter 3. This is followed by a short introduction to the Källen-Lehmann Representation of spectral functions and how these can be parametrised within the framework of this model (Chapter 4). The results of the vector and axial vector spectral functions are presented in Chapter 5 and 6.
Tuning and optimization of the field distribution for 4-Rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole Linacs
Janet Susan Schmidt
- In this thesis, the tuning process of the 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole has been analyzed and a theory for the prediction of the tuning plate's influence on the longitudinal voltage distribution was developed together with RF design options for the optimization of the fringe fields.
The basic principles of the RFQ's particle dynamics and resonant behavior are introduced in the theory part of this thesis. All studies that are presented are based on the work on four RFQs of recent linac projects. These RFQs are described in one chapter. Here, the projects are introduced together with details about the RFQ parameters and performance. In the meantime two of these RFQs are in full operation at NSCL at MSU and FNAL. One is operating in the test phase of the MedAustron Cancer Therapy Center and the fourth one for LANL is about to be built. The longitudinal voltage distribution has been studied in detail with a focus on the influence of the RF design with tuning elements and parameters like the electrodes overlap or the distance between stems. The theory for simulation methods for the field flatness that were developed as part of this thesis, as well as its simulation with CST MWS have been analyzed and compared to measurements. The lumped circuit model has proven to predict results with an accuracy that can be used in the tuning process of 4-rod RFQs. Together with results from the tuning studies, the studies on the fringe fields of the 4-rod structure lead to a proposal for a 4-rod RFQ model with an improved field distribution in the transverse and longitudinal electric field.
Modelling radiation fields of ion beams in tissue-like materials
Lucas Norberto Burigo
- Fast nuclei are ionizing radiation which can cause deleterious effects to irradiated cells. The modelling of the interactions of such ions with matter and the related effects are very important to physics, radiobiology, medicine and space science and technology. A powerful method to study the interactions of ionizing radiation with biological systems was developed in the field of microdosimetry. Microdosimetry spectra characterize the energy deposition to objects of cellular size, i.e., a few micrometers.
In the present thesis the interaction of ions with tissue-like media was investigated using the Monte Carlo model for Heavy-Ion Therapy (MCHIT) developed at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies. MCHIT is a Geant4-based application intended to benchmark the physical models of Geant4 and investigate the physical properties of therapeutic ion beams. We have implemented new features in MCHIT in order to calculate microdosimetric quantities characterizing the radiation fields of accelerated nucleons and nuclei. The results of our Monte Carlo simulations were compared with recent experimental microdosimetry data.
In addition to microdosimetry calculations with MCHIT, we also investigated the biological properties of ion beams, e.g. their relative biological effectiveness (RBE), by means of the modified Microdosimetric-Kinetic model (MKM). The MKM uses microdosimetry spectra in describing cell response to radiation. MCHIT+MKM allowed us to study the physical and biological properties of ion beams. The main results of the thesis are as follows:
MCHIT is able to describe the spatial distribution of the physical dose in tissue-like media and microdosimetry spectra for ions with energies relevant to space research and ion-beam cancer therapy; MCHIT+MKM predicts a reduction of the biological effectiveness of ions propagating in extended medium due to nuclear fragmentation reactions; We predicted favourable biological dose-depth profiles for monoenergetic helium and lithium beams similar to the one for carbon beam. Well-adjusted biological dose distributions for H-1, He-4, C-12 and O-16 with a very flat spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) plateau were calculated with MCHIT+MKM; MCHIT+MKM predicts less damage to healthy tissues in the entrance channel for SOBP He-4 and C-12 beams compared to H-1 and O-16 ones. No definitive advantages for oxygen ions with respect to carbon were found.
The thermal neutron capture cross section of 60Fe
- This work derives the value of the neutron capture cross section of 60Fe at the energy of kT = 25 meV. Iron plays an important role in stellar nucleosynthesis, because it is a seed material for the s-process, a neutron capture process in which the elements between iron and bismuth are synthesized.
To determine the thermal neutron cross section of 60Fe, an iron sample produced in the framework of the ERAWAST1 program at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland was irradiated at the research reactor TRIGA2 at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. Before the irradiation, the number of 60Fe particles
in the sample was calculated using the decay scheme of 60Fe. There were (8.207 ± 0:066 stat 0:298 syst) * 10 14 60Fe particles in the sample.
The irradiation of the sample took place in May 2012. The counting of the reaction product, 61Fe, was undertaken using a HPGe detector located in a laboratory at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz. Knowing the number of 60Fe particles in the sample, the number of produced 61Fe particles and the neutron flux from the reactor, the thermal neutron capture cross section of ρth60Fe = (0.203 ± 0:021 stat 0:024 syst) b could be determined.
The determination of the thermal neutron capture cross section at the energy of kT = 25 meV constitutes to the first at this energy. There was already a measurement of the neutron capture cross section of 60Fe at the energy of kT = 25 keV in Karlsruhe in Germany. The result of the measurement was 25 keV = (9.9 ± 2:8 syst 1:4 stat) mb and was published in the year 2009 .
Adding datapoints for the cross section at different energies improves extarpolation and helps verification of theoretical models for elemental synthesis. For this reason, a measurement of the 60Fe neutron capture cross section at the energy of kT = 90 keV is planned at Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.
Having the neutron capture cross section of 60Fe at the energy of kT = 25 keV measured in the year 2009 in Karlsruhe , at the energy of kT = 25 meV measured in May 2012 at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz and at the planned energy of kT = 90 keV at Goethe University Frankfurt, there will be three points for
the extrapolation of the values for the neutron capture cross section of 60Fe. This will lead to a significant reduction in uncertainty with respect to existing theoretical discrepancies.
Systematic Time Resolution Measurements of Prototype Plastic Scintillator Bars with Photomultiplier Readout for the NeuLAND Detector
- The following thesis is the description and the analysis of time resolution measurements of the plastic scintillator protorypes bar with PMT (photomultiplier tube) readout, performed with a 31 MeV electron beam at the HZDR (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf) . Similar bars will be used as building blocks for the NeuLAND detector (new large area neutron detector) - a ToF (time of flight) wall within the R3B setup (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams ) at the future FAIR facility (GSI Darmstadt ). The superconducting ELBE (electron linear-accellerator for beams of high brilliance and low emittance) was used as an electron source. The scintillation material used was RP408.
Two series of measurements were made within three months. In the first series, three bars of different sizes (200 x 5 x 5 cm3; 200 x 3 x 3 cm3; 300 x 5 x 5 cm3, the latter was made by coupling one 100 cm bar with a 200 cm bar using silicon grease) were used in the experiment consecutively. They had one Hamamatsu R8619 photomultiplier tube with an active diameter of 22 mm attached to each side with silicon grease. A measurement with the 200 x 5 x 5 cm3 bar without silicon grease was also performed.
In the second series, two equal scintillator bars (270 x 5 x 5 cm3 with a 10 cm light guide) on each side were used. Measurements with and without silicon coupling as well as with two different types of PMTs (R8619 and R2059) were executed.
Time and charge signals were processed with the TACQUILA electronic board. The time resolution was measured with the very precise pulsed electron signal of the accelerator. The time resolution measurements resulted in ρ200x5x5 ~ 159 ps; ρ200x5x5,no silicon ~ 162 ps; ρ200x3x3 ~ 153 ps; ρ300x5x5 ~ 204 ps.
For the second date they resulted in ρR8619 ~ 149 ps; ρR8619, no silicon ~ 175 ps; ρR2059 ~ 141 ps.
More tests and analysis is required until the results are definite.