Spectral densities of the τ lepton in a global U(2)L × U(2)R linear sigma model with electroweak interaction
- This work is dedicated to the study of the vector and axial vector spectral functions of the τ lepton within the framework of a U(2)L × U(2)R Linear Sigma Model with electroweak interaction. As an effective field theory the Linear Sigma Model describes hadronic degrees of freedom based on the symmetries of the Standard Model. Therefore, the following section aims at giving a very general and concise introduction to the Standard Model and the meaning of symmetries for contemporary elementary particle physics. In the next section the SU(3)C symmetry group will be discussed in short, followed by an introduction to chiral symmetry SU(2)L × SU(2)R. In the last section of this chapter the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory of the local group SU(2)L × U(1)Y is presented. Important concepts of the theoretical framework of the Standard Model, such as the Noether Theorem, the Gauge Principle, Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking, and the Higgs Mechanism will be introduced in the context of these three symmetry groups. In Chapter 2 it will be first shown how the symmetries of the Standard Model are realised within the global U(2)L × U(2)R Linear Sigma Model and how electroweak interactions can be introduced to the model on the basis of local SU(2)L × U(1)Y symmetry transformations of the hadronic degrees of freedom. The vertices that are relevant for the vector and axial vector decay channels in weak τ decay are extracted from the Lagrangian with electroweak interaction in Chapter 3. This is followed by a short introduction to the Källen-Lehmann Representation of spectral functions and how these can be parametrised within the framework of this model (Chapter 4). The results of the vector and axial vector spectral functions are presented in Chapter 5 and 6.
Tuning and optimization of the field distribution for 4-Rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole Linacs
Janet Susan Schmidt
- In this thesis, the tuning process of the 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole has been analyzed and a theory for the prediction of the tuning plate's influence on the longitudinal voltage distribution was developed together with RF design options for the optimization of the fringe fields.
The basic principles of the RFQ's particle dynamics and resonant behavior are introduced in the theory part of this thesis. All studies that are presented are based on the work on four RFQs of recent linac projects. These RFQs are described in one chapter. Here, the projects are introduced together with details about the RFQ parameters and performance. In the meantime two of these RFQs are in full operation at NSCL at MSU and FNAL. One is operating in the test phase of the MedAustron Cancer Therapy Center and the fourth one for LANL is about to be built. The longitudinal voltage distribution has been studied in detail with a focus on the influence of the RF design with tuning elements and parameters like the electrodes overlap or the distance between stems. The theory for simulation methods for the field flatness that were developed as part of this thesis, as well as its simulation with CST MWS have been analyzed and compared to measurements. The lumped circuit model has proven to predict results with an accuracy that can be used in the tuning process of 4-rod RFQs. Together with results from the tuning studies, the studies on the fringe fields of the 4-rod structure lead to a proposal for a 4-rod RFQ model with an improved field distribution in the transverse and longitudinal electric field.
Modelling radiation fields of ion beams in tissue-like materials
Lucas Norberto Burigo
- Fast nuclei are ionizing radiation which can cause deleterious effects to irradiated cells. The modelling of the interactions of such ions with matter and the related effects are very important to physics, radiobiology, medicine and space science and technology. A powerful method to study the interactions of ionizing radiation with biological systems was developed in the field of microdosimetry. Microdosimetry spectra characterize the energy deposition to objects of cellular size, i.e., a few micrometers.
In the present thesis the interaction of ions with tissue-like media was investigated using the Monte Carlo model for Heavy-Ion Therapy (MCHIT) developed at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies. MCHIT is a Geant4-based application intended to benchmark the physical models of Geant4 and investigate the physical properties of therapeutic ion beams. We have implemented new features in MCHIT in order to calculate microdosimetric quantities characterizing the radiation fields of accelerated nucleons and nuclei. The results of our Monte Carlo simulations were compared with recent experimental microdosimetry data.
In addition to microdosimetry calculations with MCHIT, we also investigated the biological properties of ion beams, e.g. their relative biological effectiveness (RBE), by means of the modified Microdosimetric-Kinetic model (MKM). The MKM uses microdosimetry spectra in describing cell response to radiation. MCHIT+MKM allowed us to study the physical and biological properties of ion beams. The main results of the thesis are as follows:
MCHIT is able to describe the spatial distribution of the physical dose in tissue-like media and microdosimetry spectra for ions with energies relevant to space research and ion-beam cancer therapy; MCHIT+MKM predicts a reduction of the biological effectiveness of ions propagating in extended medium due to nuclear fragmentation reactions; We predicted favourable biological dose-depth profiles for monoenergetic helium and lithium beams similar to the one for carbon beam. Well-adjusted biological dose distributions for H-1, He-4, C-12 and O-16 with a very flat spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) plateau were calculated with MCHIT+MKM; MCHIT+MKM predicts less damage to healthy tissues in the entrance channel for SOBP He-4 and C-12 beams compared to H-1 and O-16 ones. No definitive advantages for oxygen ions with respect to carbon were found.
The thermal neutron capture cross section of 60Fe
- This work derives the value of the neutron capture cross section of 60Fe at the energy of kT = 25 meV. Iron plays an important role in stellar nucleosynthesis, because it is a seed material for the s-process, a neutron capture process in which the elements between iron and bismuth are synthesized.
To determine the thermal neutron cross section of 60Fe, an iron sample produced in the framework of the ERAWAST1 program at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland was irradiated at the research reactor TRIGA2 at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. Before the irradiation, the number of 60Fe particles
in the sample was calculated using the decay scheme of 60Fe. There were (8.207 ± 0:066 stat 0:298 syst) * 10 14 60Fe particles in the sample.
The irradiation of the sample took place in May 2012. The counting of the reaction product, 61Fe, was undertaken using a HPGe detector located in a laboratory at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz. Knowing the number of 60Fe particles in the sample, the number of produced 61Fe particles and the neutron flux from the reactor, the thermal neutron capture cross section of ρth60Fe = (0.203 ± 0:021 stat 0:024 syst) b could be determined.
The determination of the thermal neutron capture cross section at the energy of kT = 25 meV constitutes to the first at this energy. There was already a measurement of the neutron capture cross section of 60Fe at the energy of kT = 25 keV in Karlsruhe in Germany. The result of the measurement was 25 keV = (9.9 ± 2:8 syst 1:4 stat) mb and was published in the year 2009 .
Adding datapoints for the cross section at different energies improves extarpolation and helps verification of theoretical models for elemental synthesis. For this reason, a measurement of the 60Fe neutron capture cross section at the energy of kT = 90 keV is planned at Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.
Having the neutron capture cross section of 60Fe at the energy of kT = 25 keV measured in the year 2009 in Karlsruhe , at the energy of kT = 25 meV measured in May 2012 at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz and at the planned energy of kT = 90 keV at Goethe University Frankfurt, there will be three points for
the extrapolation of the values for the neutron capture cross section of 60Fe. This will lead to a significant reduction in uncertainty with respect to existing theoretical discrepancies.
Systematic Time Resolution Measurements of Prototype Plastic Scintillator Bars with Photomultiplier Readout for the NeuLAND Detector
- The following thesis is the description and the analysis of time resolution measurements of the plastic scintillator protorypes bar with PMT (photomultiplier tube) readout, performed with a 31 MeV electron beam at the HZDR (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf) . Similar bars will be used as building blocks for the NeuLAND detector (new large area neutron detector) - a ToF (time of flight) wall within the R3B setup (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams ) at the future FAIR facility (GSI Darmstadt ). The superconducting ELBE (electron linear-accellerator for beams of high brilliance and low emittance) was used as an electron source. The scintillation material used was RP408.
Two series of measurements were made within three months. In the first series, three bars of different sizes (200 x 5 x 5 cm3; 200 x 3 x 3 cm3; 300 x 5 x 5 cm3, the latter was made by coupling one 100 cm bar with a 200 cm bar using silicon grease) were used in the experiment consecutively. They had one Hamamatsu R8619 photomultiplier tube with an active diameter of 22 mm attached to each side with silicon grease. A measurement with the 200 x 5 x 5 cm3 bar without silicon grease was also performed.
In the second series, two equal scintillator bars (270 x 5 x 5 cm3 with a 10 cm light guide) on each side were used. Measurements with and without silicon coupling as well as with two different types of PMTs (R8619 and R2059) were executed.
Time and charge signals were processed with the TACQUILA electronic board. The time resolution was measured with the very precise pulsed electron signal of the accelerator. The time resolution measurements resulted in ρ200x5x5 ~ 159 ps; ρ200x5x5,no silicon ~ 162 ps; ρ200x3x3 ~ 153 ps; ρ300x5x5 ~ 204 ps.
For the second date they resulted in ρR8619 ~ 149 ps; ρR8619, no silicon ~ 175 ps; ρR2059 ~ 141 ps.
More tests and analysis is required until the results are definite.
Coulomb dissociation reactions on molybdenum isotopes for astrophysics applications
- Within the present work, photodissociation reactions on 100Mo, 93Mo and 92Mo isotopes were studied by means of the Coulomb dissociation method at the LAND setup at GSI. Experimental data on these isotopes are important to explain the problem of the underproduction of the lighter p-nuclei - 92; 94Mo - within the models of the p-process nucleosynthesis. The reaction rates used in the nucleosynthesis calculations are usually obtained within the framework of the statistical model. In order to verify the model predictions and reduce the uncertainties, experimental measurements of the reaction cross sections are required. In particular, the data on (γ,n) reactions are of interest, since these reactions were shown to dominate the p-process flow in the molybdenum mass region.
As a result of the analysis of the present experiment, integrated Coulomb excitation cross sections of the 100Mo(γ,n), 100Mo(γ,2n), 93Mo(γ,n) and 92Mo(γ,n) reactions were determined. The measurement of the 93Mo isotope is particularly important, since this nucleus is unstable, and the corresponding cross section has not been measured before.
It should be emphasized that Coulomb dissociation is a unique tool to study photoninduced reactions on unstable nuclei, which is especially relevant in the context of nucleosynthesis network calculations. However, because of to the complexity of the data analysis procedure and a number of model assumptions that are required in order to extract the Coulomb excitation cross section from the data, one of the main aspects of this thesis was to verify the method by comparing the results with the previously published data obtained with real photon beams. Integrated cross sections of the 100Mo(γ,n) and 100Mo(γ,2n) reactions were directly compared to the data by Beil et al., obtained at Saclay with photons from positron annihilation, while an indirect comparison could be performed with a recent photoactivation measurement by Erhard and co-workers. A reasonable agreement was observed for the 1n channel: a scaling factor of 0.8 ± 0.1 between our result and Beil et al. data is consistent with the scaling factor of 0.89±0.09 reported by Erhard et al. between their data and Beil et al. data. Both results are in agreement with the scaling factor of 0.85 ± 0.03 recommended by Berman et al. for the data measured at Saclay on nuclei in the respective mass region. A somewhat lower factor of 0.61 ± 0.09 between the present data and Beil et al. data was obtained for the 2n channel. The discrepancy might be explained by both the substantial efficiency correction that has to be applied to the LAND data in the two-neutron case, as well as by an insufficiently accurate assumption that the Saclay neutron detector efficiency is energy- and multiplicity- independent.
A second important topic of the present thesis is the investigation of the efficiency of the CsI gamma detector. The calorimetric information that it delivers is essential to reconstruct the energy-differential cross section from the present measurement. The data taken with the gamma calibration sources shortly after the experiment were used for the investigation. In addition, a test experiment in refined conditions was conducted within the framework of this thesis. Numerous GEANT3 simulations of the detector were performed in order to understand various aspects of its performance. As a result, the efficiency of the detector was determined to be approximately a factor of 2 lower than the efficiency expected from the simulation. This result is consistent with several independent investigations, which were performed using different methods. At the same time, a remarkable agreement between the simulated and experimental data was achieved under assumption that the inefficiency of the detector is explained by the loss of data from a number of crystals, which are randomly chosen in each event according to their averaged performance ratio (the ”on-off” effect). The reasons for the observed malfunction are yet not fully clear. Regardless of the exact reason, in the present conditions a deconvolution of the measured data from the CsI response is not possible. Consequently, within the framework of this thesis, the results are presented in terms of integrated cross sections. A search for alternative methods of data interpretation, allowing to extract energy-differential information out of the available data, in currently ongoing.
In the more recent experiments at the LAND setup, where the Crystal Ball gamma detector was used as a calorimeter, the reconstruction of the energy-differential cross section with a reasonable resolution was already shown to be feasible. It means that, even considering the uncertainties of the present experiment of the order of 10%, the uncertainties of the statistical model predictions, which are on average estimated to be within a factor of 1.5-2, can already be constrained.
The analysis of the present experiment is still in progress. As a next step, Coulomb excitation cross section for 94Mo will be obtained. The 94Mo(γ,n) reaction cannot be studied by photoactivation, since the life time of the daughter nucleus is too long (4000 y). At the same time, this reaction plays a key role in the p-process nucleosynthesis.
The future of the LAND setup - the R3B setup1 at FAIR2 - will take advantage of a three orders of magnitude higher intensity of the radioactive beams , as well as of a completely new detector system. High-resolution measurements of the energy-differential cross sections will be possible for exotic nuclei, which were never accessible in the laboratory before. Such measurements will open great opportunities for nuclear astrophysics, allowing to obtain high-quality experimental data even for regions of the nuclear chart where the statistical model calculations are not applicable.
Design of the micro vertex detector of the CBM experiment : development of a detector response model and feasibility studies of open charm measurement
Christina Anna Deveaux
- The PhD addresses the feasibility of reconstructing open charm mesons with the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment, which will be installed at the FAIR accelerator complex at Darmstadt/Germany. The measurements will be carried out by means of a dedicated Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), which will be equipped with CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). The feasibility of reconstructing the particles with a proposed detector setup was studied.
To obtain conclusive results, the properties of a MAPS prototype were measured in a beam test at the CERN-SPS accelerator. Based on the results achieved, a dedicated simulation software for the sensors was developed and implemented into the software framework of CBM (CBMRoot). Simulations on the reconstruction of D0-mesons were carried out. It is concluded that the reconstruction of those particles is possible.
The PhD introduces the physics motivation of doing open charm measurements, represents the results of the measurements of MAPS and introduces the innovative simulation model for those sensors as much as the concept and results of simulations of the D0 reconstruction.
Stellar evolution, nucleosynthesis and s-process in low metallicity AGB stars
- Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are initially low and intermediate mass stars undergoing recurrent hydrogen and helium shell burning. During the advanced stage of stellar evolution AGB stars follow after the helium core burning ceased and are located in the AGB of the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram. One characteristic is their ability of element synthesis, especially carbon and nitrogen, which they eject in large amounts into the interstellar medium. But AGB stars also feature a slow-neutron capture process called s-process which forms approximately 50 % of all elements between Fe and Bi. The initial mass function emphasizes the importance of the synthesized ejecta of AGB stars since they are much more abundant than massive stars. Therefore, the abundance evolution of many elements in the universe is drastically affected by AGB stars. In order to understand chemical evolution in the universe their behavior must be known since their first appearance. In previous times less heavy elements were produced and available. Hence AGB stars with lower heavy element content, which means lower metallicity, must be investigated. They appear to behave substantially differently than stars of higher metallicity. Another issue is that AGB stars have mass-dependent characteristics from which follows a division into low-mass, massive and super AGB stars. Super AGB stars have the most open issues due to their large masses and initial mass boundaries that separate them from massive stars. Due to large spectroscopic surveys in the last years, many low metallicity stars have been analyzed. These findings make it necessary to complement those studies through stellar modeling. This work makes a step in this direction. The AGB star masses under investigation are 1M⊙, 1.65M⊙, 2M⊙, 3M⊙, 4M⊙, 5M⊙, 6M⊙ and 7M⊙ which include low-mass, massive and super AGB stars. Metallicities of Z = 6 x 10 exp-3 and Z = 1 x 10 exp-4 (for comparison, solar Z ~ 0.02) were chosen. These results are an extension of already available data, covering solar and half-solar metallicity, but without super AGB stars. Therefore physics input includes mainly well-established approaches rather than new theories. New physical approaches are included due to the low metallicity which makes the results a unique set of models. Additionally, extensive s-process network calculations lead to production factors of all included elements and isotopes. The s-process signatures of those stars were analyzed. The stellar evolution simulations presented in this work have been utilized for rate and especially sensitivity studies. One approach done was to analyze s-process branchings at 95Zr and 85Kr for stars at 3M⊙ with Z = 1 x 10 exp-2 and Z = 1 x 10 exp-3 respectively.
Non-equilibrium expansion dynamics of strongly correlated bosons in a 2d optical lattice
Resonances and poles in the second Riemann sheet