The 152Sm(p,n) reaction and its astrophysical importance
- Within the nucleosynthetic processes of the slow neutron-capture reaction network (called the s process) the so called branching points, unstable isotopes where different nuclear reactions are competing, are important to understand . For modeling and calculating the nucleosynthesis and compare the resulting abundances to the observed ones, it is indispensable to know the branching ratios as well as the corresponding cross sections.
A great challenge in measuring those rates in experiments may be the radioactivity of the isotopes involved, which can make it nearly impossible to manufacture the needed targets. In addition, in stellar environments the excited states of isotopes can be in equilibrium with the ground state, affecting the half-lives and the branching ratios significantly. The isotope 152Eu is such a branching point, with neutron captures and β-decays competing. Those challenges were approached in the s405 experiment performed at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH: the challenge the challenge of the radioactivity can be approached by experiments carried out in inverse kinematics with radioactive beams, solving the problem of unstable targets. Also a reversed reaction was used to access the excited states of the studied isotope. The performed 152Sm(p,n)152Eu is a pioneering attempt to use those methods on heavy ions. The (p,n) reaction was used as a substitute for electron capture, the focus lies on reactions with low-momentum transfers, resulting in the emission of low-energy neutrons. The new developed low-energy detector array LENA was put to test for the fist time in the s405 experiment.
Neutrons at FRANZ: production and data acquisition systems
Nuclear reactions for astrophysics with storage rings
- This thesis presents experimental studies of proton capture and fragmentation reactions with heavy-ion storage rings. In one experiment, the 96Ru(p, γ)97Rh cross sections near the Gamow window have been measured at the ESR of GSI. In the other experiment, the measurement of the fragmentation yields has been carried out at the CSRe of IMP.
It is essential to determine the cross sections of (γ, p) or (p, γ) reactions for p-process network calculations. However, only very few of the required cross sections have been measured and thus most of them rely solely on Hauser-Feshbach model predictions. The predictions of the model have always very large uncertainties because of the not well-known input parameters. These parameters can be constrained by experiments. Compared to the traditional activation technique, a novel method using a storage ring has been developed to measure the cross sections of (p, γ) reactions in inverse kinematics.
This proton capture experiment has been performed at the ESR, where the circulating 96Ru44+ ions interacted with a hydrogen gas target at 9, 10 and 11 MeV/u. The nuclear reaction products of (p, p), (p, α), (p, n) and (p, γ) reactions were registered by position sensitive detectors. A Geant4 simulation code has been developed to distinguish the (p, γ) reaction products unambiguously from the background reactions. In this work, a relative normalization method has been utilized to accurately determine the cross sections of the (p, γ) reaction. The 96Ru(p, γ)97Rh cross section in the Gamow window of the p process is sensitive to two parameters, i.e., the γ-ray strength function and the optical model potential, while it is mainly sensitive to the γ-ray strength function in the energy region of our experiment. Therefore, our experimental (p, γ) cross sections near 10 MeV/u have been used to directly constrain the γ-ray strength function used in the model. Furthermore, the proton potential has also been constrained by combining our results with additional experimental data for this reaction in the lower energy region. The constrained model has been used to calculate the reaction rate over a wide temperature range, which is an extremely important input for astrophysical calculations.
The yields of fragments produced by 78Kr fragmentation reactions have been measured at the CSRe for the Tz = −1/2 and Tz = 1/2 nuclei along or close to the paths of αp- and rp-processes. The measured yields present a significant odd-even staggering effect for Tz = −1/2 nuclides but they are small for Tz = 1/2 nuclides.
The magnitude of this effect for four consecutive yields has been quantified using a third-order difference formula. It is found that the largest odd-even staggering is reached near the closed shells Z = 20 and Z = 28. Our experimental results could also compared with the data from other experiments with different projectile-target combinations. All these experimental data strongly support the closed shells Z = 20 and Z = 28 for the Tz = −1/2 nuclei.
Alpha-induced production cross sections of 77Kr and 77Br and thick target yield of 80Br
- This work derived the value of α-induced production cross sections of 77Kr and 77Br at α-energies of 12 MeV and 14 MeV, the thick target yields of 77Kr and 77Br at α-energies of 11.19 MeV, 13 MeV and 15.1 MeV and the thick target yield of 80Br as well as 80mBr at an α-energy of 15.1 MeV using the activation technique...
Proton-capture reactions in thermonuclear supernovae and the p process
- XIII Nuclei in the Cosmos, 7-11 July, 2014 Debrecen, Hungary.
As an alternative production scenario to the so-called g process, the most abundant p nucleus 92Mo may be produced by a chain of proton-capture reactions in supernovae type Ia. The reactions 90Zr(p,g) and 91Nb(p,g) are the most important reactions in this chain. We have measured the first reaction using high-resolution in-beam g-spectroscopy at HORUS, Cologne, Germany, to contribute to the existing experimental data base. So far, we only investigated the high-energy part of the Gamow window and the analysis is still in progress. We plan to study the second reaction in standard kinematics at the FRANZ facility, Frankfurt, Germany. Current developments at FRANZ will be explained in detail.
From tomograms to molecular structure : image processing in cryo-electron tomography
- Cryo-electron tomography (CET) is a unique technique to visualize biological objects under near-to-native conditions at near-atomic resolution. CET provides three-dimensional (3D) snapshots of the cellular proteome, in which the spatial relations between macromolecular complexes in their near native cellular context can be explored. Due to the limitation of the electron dose applicable on biological samples, the achievable resolution of a tomogram is restricted to a few nanometers, higher resolution can be achieved by averaging of structures occurring in multiples. For this purpose, computational techniques such as template matching, sub-tomogram averaging and classification are essential for a meaningful processing of CET data.
This thesis introduces the techniques of template matching and sub-tomogram averaging and their applications on real biological data sets. Subsequently, the problem of reference bias, which restricts the applicability of those techniques, is addressed. Two methods that estimate the reference bias in Fourier and real space are demonstrated. The real space method, which we have named the “M-free” score, provides a reliable estimation of the reference bias, which gives access to the reliability of the template matching or sub-tomogram averaging process. Thus, the “M-free” score makes those approaches more applicable to structural biology. Furthermore, a classification algorithm based on Neural Networks (NN) called “KerDenSOM3D” is introduced, which is implemented in 3D and compensates for the missing-wedge. This approach helps extracting different structural states of macromolecular complexes or increasing the class purity of data sets by eliminating outliers. A comprehensive comparison with other classification methods shows superior performance of KerDenSOM3D.
Microwave radar imaging of heterogeneous breast tissue integrating a priori information
Thomas N. Kelly
Ian J. Craddock
- Conventional radar-based image reconstruction techniques fail when they are applied to heterogeneous breast tissue, since the underlying in-breast relative permittivity is unknown or assumed to be constant. This results in a systematic error during the process of image formation. A recent trend in microwave biomedical imaging is to extract the relative permittivity from the object under test to improve the image reconstruction quality and thereby to enhance the diagnostic assessment. In this paper, we present a novel radar-based methodology for microwave breast cancer detection in heterogeneous breast tissue integrating a 3D map of relative permittivity as a priori information. This leads to a novel image reconstruction formulation where the delay-and-sum focusing takes place in time rather than range domain. Results are shown for a heterogeneous dense (class-4) and a scattered fibroglandular (class-2) numerical breast phantom using Bristol's 31-element array configuration.
Measurement of the 94Mo(γ,n) reaction by Coulomb dissociation and related post-processing nucleosynthesis simulations for the p-process
- The elements in the universe are mainly produced by charged-particle fusion reactions and neutron-capture reactions. About 35 proton-rich isotopes, the p-nuclei, cannot be produced via neutron-induced reactions. To date, nucleosynthesis simulations of possible production sites fail to reproduce the p-nuclei abundances observed in the solar system. In particular, the origin of the light p-nuclei 92Mo, 94Mo, 96Ru and 98Ru is little understood. The nucleosynthesis simulations rely on assumptions about the seed abundance distributions, the nuclear reaction network and the astrophysical environment. This work addressed the nuclear data input.
The key reaction 94Mo(g,n) for the production ratio of the p-nuclei 92Mo and 94Mo was investigated via Coulomb dissociation at the LAND/R3B setup at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. A beam of 94Mo with an energy of 500 AMeV was directed onto a lead target. The neutron-dissociation reactions following the Coulomb excitation by virtual photons of the electromagnetic field of the target nucleus were investigated. All particles in the incoming and outgoing channels of the reaction were identified and their kinematics were determined in a complex analysis. The systematic uncertainties were analyzed by calculating the cross sections for all possible combinations of the data selection criteria. The integral Coulomb dissociation cross section of the reaction 94Mo(g,n) was determined to be (571 +- 14 (stat) +- 46 (syst) ) mb. The result was compared to the data obtained in a real photon experiment carried out at the Saclay linear accelerator. The ratio of the integral cross sections was found to be 0.63 +- 0.07, which is lower than the expected value of about 0.8.
The nucleosynthesis of the light p-nuclei 92Mo, 94Mo, 96Ru and 98Ru was investigated in post-processing nucleosynthesis simulations within the NuGrid research platform. The impact of rate uncertainties of the most important production and destruction reactions was studied for a Supernova type II model. It could be shown that the light p-nuclei are mainly produced via neutron-dissociation reactions on heavier nuclei in the isotopic chains, and that the final abundances of these p-nuclei are determined by their main destruction reactions. The nucleosynthesis of 92Mo and 94Mo was also studied in different environments of a Supernova type Ia model. It was concluded that the maximum temperature and the duration of the high temperature phase determine the final abundances of 92Mo and 94Mo.
Development and test of a prototype for the PANDA Barrel DIRC detector at FAIR
- The PANDA experiment at FAIR will perform world class physics studies using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. A rich physics program requires very good particle identification (PID). Charged hadron PID for the barrel section of the target spectrometer has to cover the angular range of 22-140° and separate pions from kaons for momenta up to 3.5 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. The system that will provide it has to be thin and operate in a strong magnetic field. A ring imaging Cherenkov detector using the DIRC principle meets those requirements. The design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC is based on the successful BABAR DIRC counter with several important changes to improve the performance and optimize the costs. The design options are being studied in detailed Monte Carlo simulation, and implemented in increasingly complex system prototypes and tested in particle beams. Before building the full system prototypes the radiator bars and lenses are measured on the test benches. The performance of the DIRC prototype was quantified in terms of the single photon Cherenkov angle resolution and the photon yield. Results for two full system prototypes will be presented. The prototype in 2011 aimed at investigating the full size expansion volume. It was found that the resolution for this configuration is at the level of in good agreement with ray tracing simulation results. A more complex prototype, tested in 2012, provided the first experience with a compact fused silica prism expansion volume, a wide radiator plate, and several advanced lens options for the focusing system. The performance of the baseline configuration of the prototype with a standard lens and an air gap met the requirements for the PANDA PID for most of the polar angle range but failed at polar angles around 90° due to photon loss at the air gap. Measurements with a prototype high-refractive index compound lens without an air gap at a polar angle of 128° beam angle showed a good resolution of σΘC = 11.8 ± 0.7 mrad and a high photon yield of Nph = 26.1 ± 0.4. Even at polar angles close to 90° the photon yield with this lens exceeded 15 detected photons per particle, meeting the PANDA Barrel DIRC PID requirements for the entire phase space and demonstrating that the compact focusing DIRC is a very promising option for PANDA.
Measurement of the quasi free np → npπ+π− and np → ppπ−π0 reactions at 1.25 GeV with HADES
Ermias T. Atomssa
Jia Chii Berger-Chen
Juan A. Garzón
Burkhard W. Kolb
- We present the results of two-pion production in tagged quasi-free np collisions at a deutron incident beam energy of 1.25 GeV/c measured with the High-Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) installed at GSI. The specific acceptance of HADES allowed for the first time to obtain high-precision data on π+π− and π−π0 production in np collisions in a region corresponding to large transverse momenta of the secondary particles. The obtained differential cross section data provide strong constraints on the production mechanisms and on the various baryon resonance contributions (∆∆, N(1440), N(1520), ∆(1600)). The invariant mass and angular distributions from the np → npπ+π −and np → ppπ−π0 reactions are compared with different theoretical model predictions.