High functional diversity is related to high nitrogen availability in a deciduous forest - evidence from a functional trait approach
Valério de Patta Pillar
- The current study tested the assumption that floristic and functional diversity patterns are negatively related to soil nitrogen content. We analyzed 20 plots with soil N-contents ranging from 0.63% to 1.06% in a deciduous forest near Munich (Germany). To describe species adaptation strategies to different nitrogen availabilities, we used a plant functional type (PFT) approach. Each identified PFT represents one realized adaptation strategy to the current environment. These were correlated, next to plant species richness and evenness, to soil nitrogen contents. We found that N-efficient species were typical for low soil nitrogen contents, while N-requiring species occur at high N-contents. In contrast to our initial hypotheses, floristic and functional diversity measures (number of PFTs) were positively related to nitrogen content in the soil. Every functional group has its own adaptation to the prevailing environmental conditions; in consequence, these functional groups can co-exist but do not out-compete one another. The increased number of functional groups at high N-contents leads to increased species richness. Hence, for explaining diversity patterns we need to consider species groups representing different adaptations to the current environmental conditions. Such co-existing ecological strategies may even overcome the importance of competition in their effect on biodiversity.
Studentische Exkursion nach Belgien und in die Niederlande (BeNe ohne Lux) 2009 : des Instituts für Atmosphäre und Umwelt, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main ; Einzelberichte zu den Stationen
Nocturnal nitrogen oxides at a rural mountain-site in South-Western Germany
John Nicholas Crowley
- A new, two-channel instrument for simultaneous NO3 and N2O5 monitoring was used to make the first comprehensive set of nocturnal NOx measurements (NO, NO2, NO3 and N2O5) at the Taunus Observatory, a rural mountain site (Kleiner Feldberg) in South-western Germany. In May 2008, NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios were well above the instrumental detection limit (a few ppt) on all nights of the campaign and were characterised by large variability resulting from inhomogeneously distributed sinks. The concentrations of NO3, N2O5 and NO2 were consistent with the equilibrium constant, K2, defining the rates of formation and thermal dissociation of N2O5. A steady-state lifetime analysis showed that nocturnal NOx losses were generally dominated by reaction of NO3 with volatile organic compounds in this forested region, with N2O5 uptake to aerosols of secondary importance. Analysis of a limited dataset obtained at high relative humidity indicated that the loss of N2O5 by reaction with water vapour is less efficient (> factor 3) than derived using laboratory kinetic data. The fraction of NOx present as NO3 and N2O5 reached ≈20% on some nights, with night-time losses of NOx competing with daytime losses.
Transport timescales and tracer properties in the extratropical UTLS
Michaela I. Hegglin
- A comprehensive evaluation of seasonal backward trajectories initialized in the Northern Hemisphere lowermost stratosphere (LMS) has been performed to investigate the origin of air parcels and the main mechanisms determining characteristic structures in H2O and CO within the LMS. In particular we explain the fundamental role of the transit time since last tropopause crossing (tTST) for the chemical structure of the LMS as well as the feature of the extra-tropical tropopause transition layer (ExTL) as identified from CO profiles. The distribution of H2O in the background LMS above Θ=320 K and 340 K in northern winter and summer, respectively, is found to be governed mainly by the saturation mixing ratio, which in turn is determined by the Lagrangian Cold Point (LCP) encountered by each trajectory. Most of the backward trajectories from this region in the LMS experienced their LCP in the tropics and sub-tropics. The transit time since crossing the tropopause from the troposphere to the stratosphere (tTST) is independent of the H2O value of the air parcel. TST often occurs 20 days after trajectories have encountered their LCP. CO, on the other hand, depends strongly on tTST due to its finite lifetime. The ExTL as identified from CO measurements is then explained as a layer of air just above the tropopause, which on average encountered TST fairly recently.
Impact of deep convection in the tropical tropopause layer in West Africa: in-situ observations and mesoscale modelling
Kathy S. Law
Guido Di Donfrancesco
- We present the analysis of the impact of convection on the composition of the tropical tropopause layer region (TTL) in West-Africa during the AMMA-SCOUT campaign. Geophysica M55 aircraft observations of water vapor, ozone, aerosol and CO2 show perturbed values at altitudes ranging from 14 km to 17 km (above the main convective outflow) and satellite data indicates that air detrainment is likely originated from convective cloud east of the flight. Simulations of the BOLAM mesoscale model, nudged with infrared radiance temperatures, are used to estimate the convective impact in the upper troposphere and to assess the fraction of air processed by convection. The analysis shows that BOLAM correctly reproduces the location and the vertical structure of convective outflow. Model-aided analysis indicates that in the outflow of a large convective system, deep convection can largely modify chemical composition and aerosol distribution up to the tropical tropopause. Model analysis also shows that, on average, deep convection occurring in the entire Sahelian transect (up to 2000 km E of the measurement area) has a non negligible role in determining TTL composition.
Laboratory study on new particle formation from the reaction OH + SO2: influence of experimental conditions, H2O vapour, NH3 and the amine tert-butylamine on the overall process
R. Lee Mauldin III
- ucleation experiments starting from the reaction of OH radicals with SO2 have been performed in the IfT-LFT flow tube under atmospheric conditions at 293±0.5 K for a relative humidity of 13–61%. The presence of different additives (H2, CO, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) for adjusting the OH radical concentration and resulting OH levels in the range (4–300)·105 molecule cm−3 did not influence the nucleation process itself. The number of detected particles as well as the threshold H2SO4 concentration needed for nucleation was found to be strongly dependent on the counting efficiency of the used counting devices. High-sensitivity particle counters allowed the measurement of freshly nucleated particles with diameters down to about 1.5 nm. A parameterization of the experimental data was developed using power law equations for H2SO4 and H2O vapour. The exponent for H2SO4 from different measurement series was in the range of 1.7–2.1 being in good agreement with those arising from analysis of nucleation events in the atmosphere. For increasing relative humidity, an increase of the particle number was observed. The exponent for H2O vapour was found to be 3.1 representing a first estimate. Addition of 1.2·1011 molecule cm−3 or 1.2·1012 molecule cm−3 of NH3 (range of atmospheric NH3 peak concentrations) revealed that NH3 has a measureable, promoting effect on the nucleation rate under these conditions. The promoting effect was found to be more pronounced for relatively dry conditions. NH3 showed a contribution to particle growth. Adding the amine tert-butylamine instead of NH3, the enhancing impact for nucleation and particle growth appears to be stronger.
Impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems: a global-scale analysis of ecologically relevant river flow alterations
- River flow regimes, including long-term average flows, seasonality, low flows, high flows and other types of flow variability, play an important role for freshwater ecosystems. Thus, climate change affects freshwater ecosystems not only by increased temperatures but also by altered river flow regimes. However, with one exception, transferable quantitative relations between flow alterations and ecosystem responses have not yet been derived. While discharge decreases are generally considered to be detrimental for ecosystems, the effect of future discharge increases is unclear. As a first step towards a global-scale analysis of climate change impacts on freshwater ecosystems, we quantified the impact of climate change on five ecologically relevant river flow indicators, using the global water model WaterGAP 2.1g to simulate monthly time series of river discharge with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. Four climate change scenarios based on two global climate modelsand two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios were evaluated.
We compared the impact of climate change by the 2050s to the impact of water withdrawals and dams on natural flow regimes that had occurred by 2002. Climate change was computed to alter seasonal flow regimes significantly (i.e. by more than 10%) on 90% of the global land area (excluding Greenland and Antarctica), as compared to only one quarter of the land area that had suffered from significant seasonal flow regime alterations due to dams and water withdrawals. Due to climate change, the timing of the maximum mean monthly river discharge will be shifted by at least one month on one third on the global land area, more often towards earlier months (mainly due to earlier snowmelt). Dams and withdrawals had caused comparable shifts on less than 5% of the land area only. Long-term average annual river discharge is predicted to significantly increase on one half of the land area, and to significantly decrease on one quarter. Dams and withdrawals had led to significant decreases on one sixth of the land area, and nowhere to increases.
Thus, by the 2050s, climate change will have impacted ecologically relevant river flow characteristics much more strongly than dams and water withdrawals have up to now. The only exception refers to the decrease of the statistical low flow Q90, with significant decreases both by past water withdrawals and future climate change on one quarter of the land area. Considering long-term average river discharge, only a few regions, including Spain, Italy, Iraq, Southern India, Western China, the Australian Murray Darling Basin and the High Plains Aquifer in the USA, all of them with extensive irrigation, are expected to be less affected by climate change than by past anthropogenic flow alterations. In some of these regions, climate change will exacerbate the discharge reduction. Emissions scenario B2 leads to only slightly reduced alterations of river flow regimes as compared to scenario A2 even though emissions are much smaller. The differences in alterations resulting from the two applied climate models are larger than those resulting from the two emissions scenarios. Based on general knowledge about ecosystem responses to flow alterations and data related to flow alterations by dams and water withdrawals, we expect that the computed climate change induced river flow alterations will impact freshwater ecosystems more strongly than past anthropogenic alterations.
Ordnung des Fachbereichs Geowissenschaften/Geographie der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main für den Bachelorstudiengang Geographie vom 19.05.2008 : genehmigt vom Präsidium der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt a. M. am 23.03.2010 ; hier: Änderungen
Ordnung des Fachbereichs Geowissenschaften/Geographie an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität für das Nebenfach Geographie in einem Bachelorstudiengang vom 05. Februar 2007 in der Fassung vom 20. September 2010 : genehmigt vom Präsidium der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main am 28.09.2010
Ordnung des Fachbereichs Geowissenschaften/Geographie an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität für den Bachelorstudiengang Geographie mit den Abschlüssen "Bachelor of Arts" oder "Bachelor of Science" vom 19. Mai 2008 in der Fassung vom 20. September 2010 : genehmigt vom Präsidium der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main am 28.09.2010