Impact of broom, Cytisus scoparius (Fabaceae), in naturally treeless sub-alpine frost-hollow vegetation communities at the Barrington Tops, south-eastern Australia
John R. Hosking
- The exotic shrub Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (family Fabaceae), known as broom, is having a major impact on native vegetation in naturally treeless sub-alpine frost-hollow areas (c. 32o 01’ 37” S, 151o 26’ 12” E’, 1440 m elevation) at the Barrington Tops, New South Wales, in south-eastern Australia. This vegetation is of limited extent and has significant biogeographical and ecological importance. Nine paired 10 m line transects were compared, with one of the pair in areas of almost 100% Cytisus scoparius and the other in adjacent areas without Cytisus scoparius. Results were compared with species recorded from this area in the 1930s. There are obvious differences in native vegetation in areas with and without Cytisus scoparius. On average there were 5.1 (range 2–10) species per 10 m in areas of almost 100% Cytisus scoparius cover and 17.0 (12–25) species per 10 m in areas adjacent to infested areas but without Cytisus scoparius. Other than Cytisus scoparius, the area surveyed had little in the way of exotic species and these were only present at low densities. Native species present in 2008 are similar to those recorded in the 1930s; there were no records of Cytisus scoparius in the area in the 1930s. The study suggests that control of Cytisus scoparius in naturally treeless areas at the Barrington Tops should be a priority to prevent a decline in the distribution and abundance of many plant species, many of which only occur in treeless areas of the Barrington Tops.
Adventures, hardship and a scientific legacy: Ludwig Leichhardt’s 1843 journey to Mt Royal in the Hunter Valley, NSW
- In January 1843, curiosity for natural history led a young German naturalist, Ludwig Leichhardt, to spend about three weeks exploring Mt Royal on the north of the Hunter Valley, about 70 km north west of Newcastle, New South Wales. This was a sidetrack on his journey from Newcastle, through the Hunter Valley and inland to Moreton Bay (Brisbane) and preceded the journeys for which he was to become famous; his 1844–45 overland journey from Moreton Bay to Port Essington (in Northern Territory) and his disappearance without trace in 1848 attempting to cross Australia. Using his Diary and herbarium records this paper brings together the chronological events of the 29 year old Leichhardt’s journey, the plant and animal species recorded, the specimens collected and his landscape descriptions and compares the 1843 landscape with the area today. Most of it is now in Mount Royal National Park, and part of the Gondwana Rainforest Reserves World Heritage Area. Using Mt Royal as an example of the richness of Leichhardt’s scientific legacy, we draw attention to the existence of a considerable number of Leichhardt’s plant specimens in herbaria in Sydney and Melbourne relating to his early collecting around Sydney and the little-known journey from Newcastle to Moreton Bay. Leichhardt’s visit to Mt Royal provides an insight into a gifted young naturalist coping with some of the hardships of nineteenth century botanical exploration, in a landscape which is easily recognizable and of which much is remarkably little changed since European settlement.
Survival of Casuarina cunninghamiana on a recovering sand-bed stream in the Wollombi Valley of coastal New South Wales
- The successful management and restoration of riparian corridors in Australia is currently hindered by our poor understanding of the links between hydrology, fluvial geomorphology and plant population dynamics. The aim of the current study was to determine the survival rates of Casuarina cunninghamiana subsp. cunninghamiana Miq. (family Casuarinaceae) on a sand-bed stream in the Wollombi Valley, a tributary of the Hunter River system, in coastal New South Wales (lat 33°02’S; long 151°10’E). A population planted on the banks of Dairy Arm in 1987, as part of river training works, was used to determine the long-term (24-year) survival rate. A bankfull flood in June 2011 provided an opportunity to examine the survival response of seedlings regenerating naturally within the channel. We found that 24% of the seedlings planted on the banks in 1987 had survived to adulthood. The bankfull flood significantly decreased (d.f. = 14; W= - 30; p = 0.0024) median seedling density within the channel from 12 to 2 individuals per 100 m2. Seedling survival varied with height, with seedlings > 15 cm more likely to survive the bankfull flood. The percentage of seedlings partially buried by sediment was significantly higher (d.f. = 14; W = 13; p = 0.016) after flood compared to before flood. Seedling density was positively correlated with the amount of bare ground prior to the flood (r = 0.61; p = 0.02), but this relationship was no longer significant after flood (r = 0.18; p = 0.53). 37% of the seedlings surveyed showed evidence of grazing. Our results confirm that hydrogeomorphic processes associated with a bankfull flood affect the survival of Casuarina cunninghamiana seedlings. The management implications of our findings are discussed in terms of riparian revegetation techniques and the geomorphic recovery of over-widened sand-bed streams.
Reassessment of the invasion history of two species of Cakile (Brassicaceae) in Australia
Roger D. Cousens
Peter K. Ades
Mohsen B. Mesgaran
- In this paper we revisit the invasion history of two species of Cakile in Australia. Cakile edentula subsp. edentula arrived in the mid 19th Century and spread into coastal strandline habitat from the southeast towards the west and to the north; Cakile maritima arrived in the late 19th Century and has replaced Cakile edentula over much of the range. While Cakile edentula is morphologically quite uniform, the great variation within Cakile maritima has confused field ecologists. Using herbarium records we update previous accounts of the spread of the species and report on field surveys that determined their current geographic overlap in Tasmania and in northern New South Wales/southern Queensland. We examine regional morphological variation within Cakile maritima using the national herbaria collections and variation within new population samples. We support previous interpretations that Cakile maritima has been introduced on more than one occasion from morphologically distinct races, resulting in regional variation within Australia and high variability within populations in the south-east. Western Australian populations appear distinct and probably did not initiate those in the east; we consider that eastern populations are likely to be a mix of Cakile maritima subsp. maritima from the Mediterranean and Cakile maritima subsp. integrifolia from Atlantic Europe. Although introgression from Cakile edentula into Cakile maritima cannot be discounted from our results, it is not required to explain the levels of variation in the latter species observed in Australia. Cakile maritima continues to spread southwards in Tasmania and northwards in NSW; in Queenland, a recent occurrence has proliferated in Moreton Bay, spreading slowly to the north but not appreciably southwards.
Endothelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibits glioma angiogenesis and normalizes tumor blood vessels by inducing PDGF-B expression
Cathrin J. Czupalla
Makoto M. Taketo
Karl H. Plate
- Endothelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for angiogenesis of the central nervous system and blood–brain barrier (BBB) differentiation, but its relevance for glioma vascularization is unknown. In this study, we show that doxycycline-dependent Wnt1 expression in subcutaneous and intracranial mouse glioma models induced endothelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling and led to diminished tumor growth, reduced vascular density, and normalized vessels with increased mural cell attachment. These findings were corroborated in GL261 glioma cells intracranially transplanted in mice expressing dominant-active β-catenin specifically in the endothelium. Enforced endothelial β-catenin signaling restored BBB characteristics, whereas inhibition by Dkk1 (Dickkopf-1) had opposing effects. By overactivating the Wnt pathway, we induced the Wnt/β-catenin–Dll4/Notch signaling cascade in tumor endothelia, blocking an angiogenic and favoring a quiescent vascular phenotype, indicated by induction of stalk cell genes. We show that β-catenin transcriptional activity directly regulated endothelial expression of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B), leading to mural cell recruitment thereby contributing to vascular quiescence and barrier function. We propose that reinforced Wnt/β-catenin signaling leads to inhibition of angiogenesis with normalized and less permeable vessels, which might prove to be a valuable therapeutic target for antiangiogenic and edema glioma therapy.
Dancing cheek to cheek with cheek : the historical meanderings and phraseological productivity of the word
Grzegorz A. Kleparski
- In the sections that follow we shall be concerned with analyzing the semantic evolution of the noun cheek in the history of English. The semantics of the lexical item under scrutiny will be examined with reference to its two aspects, that is (1) the semantic potential of the analysed lexical unit in its primary, etymological sense (sense A) and its secondary senses (senses B > E), (2) as well as the secondary senses emerging from various phraseological units which echo the nominal sense B (henceforth B-related senses). The analysis proposed here continues the area of research initiated in Wieclawska (2009a, 2009b), Wieclawska 2010, Kleparski and Wieclawska (2010) and Wieclawska (2011), the target of which are semantic changes and phraseological productivity of lexical items variously related to the conceptual macrocategory BODY PARTS. The methodological apparatus employed here is the one that follows the theoretical frames developed by, among others, Kleparski (1996, 1997, 2002), Kieltyka (2008, 2010) that may be referred to as representing much cognitivistic spirit of semantic analysis.
Text typology and its significance in translation
- Translation is a very broad, complex and multi-faceted phenomenon, encompassing much more factors than it seems at first glance. It is not just copying the words from the original work while changing the language, but it consists of a careful selection of appropriate phrases and expressions, combining them together in a skillful way while taking into consideration numerous aspects, one of them being the text type. The purpose of this article is, therefore, to present various text typologies and text types, specify their implications for translators and determine the role of the correct recognition of text type in producing a successful translation. This will be done on the assumption that a text type is one of the basic factors that allow the translator to recognise the function and purpose of the text as well as the author's intention. Thus, depending on the nature of these, the translator will inevitably resort to different techniques and strategies in order to successfully render the source text. Therefore, identifying the text type also helps the translator to select the appropriate translation strategy.
Context-induced creativity and the figurative use of taste terms
- For reasons of space, we only discussed one text in which the metaphors used seem to take their root in the context in which it has been written. One text is definitely not enough to make any definite claims on how widespread this phenomenon is. Given what we know about the two domains - FOOD and TASTE - one has reasons to believe that when speakers/conceptualisers(e.g. journalists) describe something which stands in some relation to both, they may intuitively be reaching for taste metaphors of the kind described above on the premise that this kind of ‘ornamentation’ will add some spice to what the addressee might otherwise consider a trivial (and boring) topic. At the same time, taste is only one among many properties a particular item of food or a substance (e.g. sugar) has. In consequence, one may well imagine contexts in which it is not its taste, but other properties (e.g. what Harbottle [1997:183] refers to as its 'pure white and deadly ’ image) that will make the conceptualiser reach for a particular linguistic or conceptual metaphor.
The Inhibition of Stat5 by a Peptide Aptamer Ligand Specific for the DNA Binding Domain Prevents Target Gene Transactivation and the Growth of Breast and Prostate Tumor Cells
- The signal transducer and activator of transcription Stat5 is transiently activated by growth factor and cytokine signals in normal cells, but its persistent activation has been observed in a wide range of human tumors. Aberrant Stat5 activity was initially observed in leukemias, but subsequently also found in carcinomas. We investigated the importance of Stat5 in human tumor cell lines. shRNA mediated downregulation of Stat5 revealed the dependence of prostate and breast cancer cells on the expression of this transcription factor. We extended these inhibition studies and derived a peptide aptamer (PA) ligand, which directly interacts with the DNA-binding domain of Stat5 in a yeast-two-hybrid screen. The Stat5 specific PA sequence is embedded in a thioredoxin (hTRX) scaffold protein. The resulting recombinant protein S5-DBD-PA was expressed in bacteria, purified and introduced into tumor cells by protein transduction. Alternatively, S5-DBD-PA was expressed in the tumor cells after infection with a S5-DBD-PA encoding gene transfer vector. Both strategies impaired the DNA-binding ability of Stat5, suppressed Stat5 dependent transactivation and caused its intracellular degradation. Our experiments describe a peptide based inhibitor of Stat5 protein activity which can serve as a lead for the development of a clinically useful compound for cancer treatment.
Proliferation and estrogen signaling can distinguish patients at risk for early versus late relapse among estrogen receptor positive breast cancers
Catherine M. Kelly
Gianluca Del Conte
W. Fraser Symmans
- INTRODUCTION: We examined if a combination of proliferation markers and estrogen receptor (ER) activity could predict early versus late relapses in ER-positive breast cancer and inform the choice and length of adjuvant endocrine therapy.
METHODS: Baseline affymetrix gene-expression profiles from ER-positive patients who received no systemic therapy (n = 559), adjuvant tamoxifen for 5 years (cohort-1: n = 683, cohort-2: n = 282) and from 58 patients treated with neoadjuvant letrozole for 3 months (gene-expression available at baseline, 14 and 90 days) were analyzed. A proliferation score based on the expression of mitotic kinases (MKS) and an ER-related score (ERS) adopted from Oncotype DX® were calculated. The same analysis was performed using the Genomic Grade Index as proliferation marker and the luminal gene score from the PAM50 classifier as measure of estrogen-related genes. Median values were used to define low and high marker groups and four combinations were created. Relapses were grouped into time cohorts of 0-2.5, 0-5, 5-10 years.
RESULTS: In the overall 10 years period, the proportional hazards assumption was violated for several biomarker groups indicating time-dependent effects. In tamoxifen-treated patients Low-MKS/Low-ERS cancers had continuously increasing risk of relapse that was higher after 5 years than Low-MKS/High-ERS cancers [0 to 10 year, HR 3.36; p = 0.013]. High-MKS/High-ERS cancers had low risk of early relapse [0-2.5 years HR 0.13; p = 0.0006], but high risk of late relapse which was higher than in the High-MKS/Low-ERS group [after 5 years HR 3.86; p = 0.007]. The High-MKS/Low-ERS subset had most of the early relapses [0 to 2.5 years, HR 6.53; p < 0.0001] especially in node negative tumors and showed minimal response to neoadjuvant letrozole. These findings were qualitatively confirmed in a smaller independent cohort of tamoxifen-treated patients. Using different biomarkers provided similar results.
CONCLUSIONS: Early relapses are highest in highly proliferative/low-ERS cancers, in particular in node negative tumors. Relapses occurring after 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen are highest among the highly-proliferative/high-ERS tumors although their risk of recurrence is modest in the first 5 years on tamoxifen. These tumors could be the best candidates for extended endocrine therapy.