If vs. When, Wenn vs. Als : Microvariation in the Semantics of Conditional and Temporal Complementizers in English and German
- In this paper, I compare the functions that the English complementizers if and when, on the one hand, and German wenn and als, on the other, have in episodic as well as in generic and adverbially quantified sentences. My claim is that all these complementizers take situation predicates as arguments, but differ with respect to the conditions they impose on these situation predicates.
Mein Weg zu den Märchen
Rolf Wilhelm Brednich
- Die Zuerkennung des Europäischen Märchenpreises für 2010 der Märchen-Stiftung Walter Kahn hat [den Autor] dazu veranlasst, in einer Art anthropologischer Rückschau auf das eigene Leben herauszufinden, welche Motive [ihn] zur Erzählforschung und zu den Märchen geführt haben.
Die düstere Seite der modernen Sagen
Rolf Wilhelm Brednich
- Die Editoren von Sammlungen moderner Sagen haben bisher selten Auskunft darüber gegeben, welche Texte sie ihren Lesern vorenthalten haben. Der vorliegende Aufsatz dient dem Autor dazu, dieses Defizit gegenüber seinen eigenen Editionen abzubauen und die in seinem Archiv befindlichen, zur Publikation in populären Anthologien ungeeigneten Erzählungen in Form von Kurzfassungen vorzulegen.
Sympathoactivation and rho-kinase-dependent baroreflex function in experimental renovascular hypertension with reduced kidney mass
Rainer U. Pliquett
Ralf P. Brandes
Early assessment of high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of benign thyroid nodules by scintigraphic means
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) allows to inflict intracorporal thermal lesions without penetrating the skin or damaging the surrounding tissue. This analysis intends to assess the magnitude of HIFU-induced ablations within benign thyroid nodules using scintigraphic imaging with 99mTc.
Ten cold, hot, or indifferent nodules were treated using multiple pulses of HIFU to induce temperatures of around 85°C within the ablation zone. Pre- and posttreatment, uptake values of 99mTc pertechnetate or 99mTc-MIBI were recorded. The pre-post reduction of nodular uptake was evaluated to assess ablation magnitude.
Relative nodular uptake in relation to total thyroidal uptake decreased after one session of HIFU in all cases. Median 99mTc-MIBI uptake reduction was 35.5% (ranging from 11% to 57%; p < 0.1), while 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy showed a median uptake reduction of 27% (range 10% to 44%; p < 0.1). No major complications were observed.
HIFU appears to be safe and is an easy to perform means of thermal ablation. This study shows that HIFU treatment in thyroidal nodules can be evaluated by scintigraphic means shortly after the intervention. Due to small sample size, the exact magnitude of HIFU ablation efficiency in thyroidal nodules remains a value to beassessed in a larger study.
Mitochondrial sequences reveal a clear separation between Angolan and South African giraffe along a cryptic rift valley
Canadian hereditary angioedema guideline
- Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a disease which is associated with random and often unpredictable attacks of painful swelling typically affecting the extremities, bowel mucosa, genitals, face and upper airway. Attacks are associated with significant functional impairment, decreased Health Related Quality of Life, and mortality in the case of laryngeal attacks. Caring for patients with HAE can be challenging due to the complexity of this disease. The care of patients with HAE in Canada is neither optimal nor uniform across the country. It lags behind other countries where there are more organized models for HAE management, and where additional therapeutic options are licensed and available for use. The objective of this guideline is to provide graded recommendations for the management of patients in Canada with HAE. This includes the treatment of attacks, short-term prophylaxis, long-term prophylaxis, and recommendations for self-administration, individualized therapy, quality of life, and comprehensive care. It is anticipated that by providing this guideline to caregivers, policy makers, patients and their advocates, that there will be an improved understanding of the current recommendations regarding management of HAE and the factors that need to be considered when choosing therapies and treatment plans for individual patients. The primary target users of this guideline are healthcare providers who are managing patients with HAE. Other healthcare providers who may use this guideline are emergency physicians, gastroenterologists, dentists and otolaryngologists, who will encounter patients with HAE and need to be aware of this condition. Hospital administrators, insurers and policy makers may also find this guideline helpful.
Malaria control in Nepal 1963–2012: challenges on the path towards elimination
Malaria is still a priority public health problem of Nepal where about 84% of the population are at risk. The aim of this paper is to highlight the past and present malaria situation in this country and its challenges for long-term malaria elimination strategies.
Malariometric indicator data of Nepal recorded through routine surveillance of health facilities for the years between 1963 and 2012 were compiled. Trends and differences in malaria indicator data were analysed.
The trend of confirmed malaria cases in Nepal between 1963 and 2012 shows fluctuation, with a peak in 1985 when the number exceeded 42,321, representing the highest malaria case-load ever recorded in Nepal. This was followed by a steep declining trend of malaria with some major outbreaks. Nepal has made significant progress in controlling malaria transmission over the past decade: total confirmed malaria cases declined by 84% (12,750 in 2002 vs 2,092 in 2012), and there was only one reported death in 2012. Based on the evaluation of the National Malaria Control Programme in 2010, Nepal recently adopted a long-term malaria elimination strategy for the years 2011–2026 with the ambitious vision of a malaria-free Nepal by 2026. However, there has been an increasing trend of Plasmodium falciparum and imported malaria proportions in the last decade. Furthermore, the analysis of malariometric indicators of 31 malaria-risk districts between 2004 and 2012 shows a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of confirmed malaria and of Plasmodium vivax, but not in the incidence of P. falciparum and clinically suspected malaria.
Based on the achievements the country has made over the last decade, Nepal is preparing to move towards malaria elimination by 2026. However, considerable challenges lie ahead. These include especially, the need to improve access to diagnostic facilities to confirm clinically suspected cases and their treatment, the development of resistance in parasites and vectors, climate change, and increasing numbers of imported cases from a porous border with India. Therefore, caution is needed before the country embarks towards malaria elimination.
Phase Ib study evaluating a self-adjuvanted mRNA cancer vaccine (RNActive®) combined with local radiation as consolidation and maintenance treatment for patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer
Sven D. Koch
Altered mucosal immune response after acute lung injury in a murine model of Ataxia Telangiectasia
Su Youn Kim