Colorectal cancer stage at diagnosis in migrants versus non-migrants (KoMigra): study protocol of a cross-sectional study in Germany
Reyn van Ewijk
Ferdinand M. Gerlach
- Background: In Germany, about 20% of the total population have a migration background. Differences exist between migrants and non-migrants in terms of health care access and utilisation. Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignant tumour in Germany, and incidence, staging and survival chances depend, amongst other things, on ethnicity and lifestyle. The current study investigates whether stage at diagnosis differs between migrants and non-migrants with colorectal cancer in an area of high migration and attempts to identify factors that can explain any differences.
Methods/Design: Data on tumour and migration status will be collected for 1,200 consecutive patients that have received a new, histologically verified diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a high migration area in Germany in the previous three months. The recruitment process is expected to take 16 months and will include gastroenterological private practices and certified centres for intestinal diseases. Descriptive and analytical analysis will be performed: the distribution of variables for migrants versus non-migrants and participants versus non-participants will be analysed using appropriate χ2-, t-, F- or Wilcoxon tests. Multivariable, logistic regression models will be performed, with the dependent variable being the dichotomized stage of the tumour (UICC stage I versus more advanced than UICC stage I). Odds ratios and associated 95%-confidence intervals will be calculated. Furthermore, ordered logistic regression models will be estimated, with the exact stage of the tumour at diagnosis as the dependent variable. Predictors used in the ordered logistic regression will be patient characteristics that are specific to migrants as well as patient characteristics that are not. Interaction models will be estimated in order to investigate whether the effects of patient characteristics on stage of tumour at the time of the initial diagnosis is different in migrants, compared to non-migrants.
Discussion: An association of migration status or other socioeconomic variables with stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer would be an important finding with respect to equal health care access among migrants. It would point to access barriers or different symptom appraisal and, in the long term, could contribute to the development of new health care concepts for migrants.
Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005056.
Agreement between self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions among multimorbid patients in primary care - results of the MultiCare Cohort Study
Juliana J. Petersen
Hendrik van den Bussche
- BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is a common phenomenon in primary care. Until now, no clinical guidelines for multimorbidity exist. For the development of these guidelines, it is necessary to know whether or not patients are aware of their diseases and to what extent they agree with their doctor. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the agreement of self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions among multimorbid patients in primary care, and to discover which patient characteristics are associated with positive agreement.
METHODS: The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 3,189 multimorbid patients, ages 65 to 85. Data was collected in personal interviews with patients and GPs. The prevalence proportions for 32 diagnosis groups, kappa coefficients and proportions of specific agreement were calculated in order to examine the agreement of patient self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions. Logistic regression models were calculated to analyze which patient characteristics can be associated with positive agreement.
RESULTS: We identified four chronic conditions with good agreement (e.g. diabetes mellitus κ = 0.80;PA = 0,87), seven with moderate agreement (e.g. cerebral ischemia/chronic stroke κ = 0.55;PA = 0.60), seventeen with fair agreement (e.g. cardiac insufficiency κ = 0.24;PA = 0.36) and four with poor agreement (e.g. gynecological problems κ = 0.05;PA = 0.10).Factors associated with positive agreement concerning different chronic diseases were sex, age, education, income, disease count, depression, EQ VAS score and nursing care dependency. For example: Women had higher odds ratios for positive agreement with their GP regarding osteoporosis (OR = 7.16). The odds ratios for positive agreement increase with increasing multimorbidity in almost all of the observed chronic conditions (OR = 1.22-2.41).
CONCLUSIONS: For multimorbidity research, the knowledge of diseases with high disagreement levels between the patients' perceived illnesses and their physicians' reports is important. The analysis shows that different patient characteristics have an impact on the agreement. Findings from this study should be included in the development of clinical guidelines for multimorbidity aiming to optimize health care. Further research is needed to identify more reasons for disagreement and their consequences in health care.
A Catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 3 (2000-2010), with notes on subfamily and tribal reclassifications
Donald E. Bright
- A third Supplement to the 1992 Catalog of the Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) of the World (Wood and Bright 1992) is presented. This Supplement updates the taxonomy, distribution, and biology pertaining to these families of Coleoptera from 2000 to the end of 2010. A few 2011 taxonomic references are included in order to make the nomenclature as current as possible. The format of this Supplement differs slightly from the format of the original 1992 Catalog and the two previous Supplements. Only references relating to general biology, systematics and distribution were selected to be included. Tribal arrangement follows the scheme established in the 1992 World Catalog, with additions. Each genus is listed alphabetically under the current tribe and the species are listed alphabetically under the current genus. Additional information on figures, distribution, hosts, and references relating to the above are given. The bibliography used with this Supplement lists 580 references, most published from 2000 to the end of 2010. New synonymy proposed: Phloeotribus carinatus Burgos and Equihua, 2003 (= Phloeotribus ebeneus Wood, 2007). New combinations proposed: Phloeosinus kinabaluensis Bright to Hyledius; Phloeosinus phyllocladus Bright to Hyledius.
An argument is made for the retention of the family status of the Scolytidae and Platypodidae as members of the superfamily Curculionoidea. A new subfamily and tribal arrangement is proposed: SCOLYTIDAE comprising 13 subfamilies, Hylesininae, with 12 tribes, Hyorrhynchinae, with one tribe; Scolytinae, with one tribe; Hexacolinae, with one tribe; Cylindrobrotinae, with one tribe; Scolytoplatypodinae, with one tribe; Cactopininae, with one tribe; Carphodicticinae, with one tribe; Micracidinae, with one tribe; Crypturginae, with one tribe; Ipinae, with six tribes; Cryphalinae, with one tribe and Corthylinae, with two tribes and PLATYPODIDAE comprising three subfamilies, Coptonotinae, with three tribes; Tesserocerinae, with two tribes and Platypodinae, with one tribe.
Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences
Eileen M. Wanke
Jan David Alexander Groneberg
- Background: Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail.
Objective: To define gender related differences of occupational accidents.
Methods: Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres.
Results: The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary.
Conclusion: The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures.
Work-related complaints and diseases of physical therapists – protocol for the establishment of a "Physical Therapist Cohort" (PTC) in Germany
Jan David Alexander Groneberg
- Background: Only few studies deal with the workload of physical therapists and the health consequences, although this occupational group is quite important for the health care system in many industrialized countries (e.g. ca. 136 000 people are currently employed as physical therapists in Germany). Therefore, the current state of knowledge of work-related diseases and disorders of physical therapists is insufficient. The aim of the "Physical Therapist Cohort" (PTC) study is to analyze the association between work-related exposures and diseases among physical therapists in Germany. This article describes the protocol of the baseline assessment of the PTC study.
Methods/Design: A cross-sectional study will be conducted as baseline assessment and will include a representative random sample of approximately 300 physical therapists employed in Germany (exposure group), and a population-based comparison group (n = 300). The comparison group will comprise a sample of working aged (18–65 years) inhabitants of a German city. Variables of interest will be assessed using a questionnaire manual including questions regarding musculoskeletal, dermal, and infectious diseases and disorders as well as psychosocial exposures, diseases and disorders. In addition to subjective measures, a clinical examination will be used to objectify the questionnaire-based results (n = 50).
Discussion: The study, which includes extensive data collection, provides a unique opportunity to study the prospective association of work-related exposures and associated complaints of physical therapists. Baseline results will give first clues with regard to whether and how prevalent main exposures of physiotherapeutic work and typical work areas of physical therapists are associated with the development of work-related diseases. Thereby, this baseline assessment provides the basis for further investigations to examine causal relationships in accordance with a longitudinal design.
Psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - application of a theoretical framework
Anne Christine Julia Merkt
- The term compensation is widely used in every-day language, in psychological research, and also discussed in the context of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, few studies have looked at psychological compensation in ADHD systematically and theory based. Compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand) is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent or the acquisition of new skills. Based on the application of a theoretical framework (Bäckman & Dixon, 1992) to ADHD, I developed the following aims: (1) To reassess the awareness of deficits in ADHD and (2) to explore psychological compensation in a group with ADHD that accomplishes high achievement.
The results of Study 1 showed that children with ADHD did not overestimate their own skills compared to a group matched for academic achievement. In Study 2, college students with ADHD reported higher achievement motivation compared to college students without ADHD. Furthermore, results indicated that women with ADHD compensate by adopting compensatory effort and obsessive-compulsive behavior. Study 3 showed that female college students compensate for possible deficits in solving a flanker task by being overly cautious, which may reflect more obsessive-compulsive behavior.
The studies are discussed within the framework of psychological compensation. They add to the understanding of compensation in ADHD by (1) the reassessment of awareness of deficits in ADHD by including a group without ADHD but with low achievement, and by (2) suggesting that overly cautious behavior could be a form of psychological compensation in females with ADHD enabling them to enter college, leading to a late diagnosis and to good performance in cognitive tasks (i.e., flanker task).
Limitations are, that I did not test all components of the theoretical framework in one study and that I did not include adults with ADHD that did not enter college in Study 2 and 3 to test if achievement motivation or overly cautious behavior explains why some adults with ADHD gain admittance to higher education and show good performance in cognitive tasks and others do not.
Quality of life is associated with physical activity and fitness in cystic fibrosis
- Background: Health-related and disease-specific quality of life (HRQoL) has been increasingly valued as relevant clinical parameter in cystic fibrosis (CF) clinical care and clinical trials. HRQoL measures should assess – among other domains – daily functioning from a patient’s perspective. However, validation studies for the most frequently used HRQoL questionnaire in CF, the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ), have not included measures of physical activity or fitness. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between HRQoL, physical activity and fitness in patients with CF.
Methods: Baseline (n = 76) and 6-month follow-up data (n = 70) from patients with CF (age ≥12 years, FEV1 ≥35%) were analysed. Patients participated in two multi-centre exercise intervention studies with identical assessment methodology. Outcome variables included HRQoL (German revised multi-dimensional disease-specific CFQ (CFQ-R)), body composition, pulmonary function, physical activity, short-term muscle power, and aerobic fitness by peak oxygen uptake and aerobic power.
Results: Peak oxygen uptake was positively related to 7 of 13 HRQoL scales cross-sectionally (r = 0.30-0.46). Muscle power (r = 0.25-0.32) and peak aerobic power (r = 0.24-0.35) were positively related to 4 scales each, and reported physical activity to 1 scale (r = 0.29). Changes in HRQoL-scores were directly and significantly related to changes in reported activity (r = 0.35-0.39), peak aerobic power (r = 0.31-0.34), and peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.26-0.37) in 3 scales each. Established associates of HRQoL such as FEV1 or body mass index correlated positively with fewer scales (all 0.24 < r < 0.55).
Conclusions: HRQoL was associated with physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, and to a lesser extent with reported physical activity. These findings underline the importance of physical fitness for HRQoL in CF and provide an additional rationale for exercise testing in this population.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00231686
Gold nanoparticles: recent aspects for human toxicology
Jan David Alexander Groneberg
- Nanoparticles (particles sized between 1 and 100 nanometers) are more and more used in all fields of science and medicine for their physicochemical properties. As gold has traditionally been considered as chemically inert and biocompatible, in particular, gold nanoparticles have been established as valuable tools in several areas of biomedical research. But in contrast to the multitude of studies that addressed the clinical use of gold nanoparticles, only little is known about potential toxicological effects such as induction of inflammatory immune responses, possible apoptotic cell death or developmental growth inhibition in embryos. Therefore the present study performed a systematic review of toxicological data, especially experimentally acquired data concerning in-vivo-toxicity, published in the PubMed. It can be stated that the data in this area of research is still largely limited. Especially, knowledge about size-, charge- and surface-chemistry dependent in-vivo-toxicity is needed to predict the hazard potential of auric nanoparticles (AuNPs) for humans.
NhaA Na+/H+ Antiporter Mutants That Hardly React to the Membrane Potential
- pH and Na+ homeostasis in all cells requires Na+/H+ antiporters. The crystal structure, obtained at pH 4, of NhaA, the main antiporter of Escherichia coli, has provided general insights into an antiporter mechanism and its unique pH regulation. Here, we describe a general method to select various NhaA mutants from a library of randomly mutagenized NhaA. The selected mutants, A167P and F267C are described in detail. Both mutants are expressed in Escherichia coli EP432 cells at 70–95% of the wild type but grow on selective medium only at neutral pH, A167P on Li+ (0.1 M) and F267C on Na+ (0.6 M). Surprising for an electrogenic secondary transporter, and opposed to wild type NhaA, the rates of A167P and F267C are almost indifferent to membrane potential. Detailed kinetic analysis reveals that in both mutants the rate limiting step of the cation exchange cycle is changed from an electrogenic to an electroneutral reaction.
9th German Conference on Chemoinformatics [: introduction]
- Introduction to the supplement: 9th German Conference on Chemoinformatics, GCC2013