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- Detecting QGP with charge transfer fluctuations (2005)
- In this study, we analyze the recently proposed charge transfer fluctuations within a finite pseudo-rapidity space. As the charge transfer fluctuation is a measure of the local charge correlation length, it is capable of detecting inhomogeneity in the hot and dense matter created by heavy ion collisions. We predict that going from peripheral to central collisions, the charge transfer fluctuations at midrapidity should decrease substantially while the charge transfer fluctuations at the edges of the observation window should decrease by a small amount. These are consequences of having a strongly inhomogeneous matter where the QGP component is concentrated around midrapidity. We also show how to constrain the values of the charge correlations lengths in both the hadronic phase and the QGP phase using the charge transfer fluctuations.

- Resonance absorption and regeneration in relativistic heavy ion collisions (2005)
- The regeneration of hadronic resonances is discussed for heavy ion collisions at SPS and SIS-300 energies. The time evolutions of Delta, rho and phi resonances are investigated. Special emphasize is put on resonance regeneration after chemical freeze-out. The emission time spectra of experimentally detectable resonances are explored.

- Probing the equation of state with pions (2005)
- The influence of the isospin-independent, isospin- and momentum-dependent equation of state (EoS), as well as the Coulomb interaction on the pion production in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions (HICs) is studied for both isospin-symmetric and neutron-rich systems. The Coulomb interaction plays an important role in the reaction dynamics, and strongly influences the rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of charged pions. It even leads to the pi- pi+ ratio deviating slightly from unity for isospin-symmetric systems. The Coulomb interaction between mesons and baryons is also crucial for reproducing the proper pion flow since it changes the behavior of the directed and the elliptic flow components of pions visibly. The EoS can be better investigated in neutron-rich system if multiple probes are measured simultaneously. For example, the rapidity and the transverse momentum distributions of the charged pions, the pi- pi+ ratio, the various pion flow components, as well as the difference of pi+-pi- flows. A new sensitive observable is proposed to probe the symmetry potential energy at high densities, namely the transverse momentum distribution of the elliptic flow difference [Delta v_2^pi+ - pi-(p_t rm c.m.].

- Dynamic canonical suppression of strangeness in transport models (2005)
- It is investigated whether canonical suppression associated with the exact conservation of an U(1)-charge can be reproduced correctly by current transport models. Therefore a pion-gas having a volume-limited cross section for kaon production and annihilation is simulated within two different transport prescriptions for realizing the inelastic collisions. It is found that both models can indeed dynamically account for the canonical suppression in the yields of rare strange particles.

- Excitation function of the longitudinal expansion in central nuclear collisions (2005)
- Longitudinal hadron spectra from proton-proton (pp) and nucleus-nucleus (AA) collisions from E_lab= 2 AGeV to sqrt s=200 AGeV are investigated. The widths of the rapidity spectra for various particle species increases monotonously with energy. The present calculation indicates no sign of a step like behaviour as excepted from the Kaon transverse mass systematics. For Pions, the transport simulation is consistent with a Landau type scaling of the rapidity widths, both in central AA reactions and in pp collisions. However, other hadron species do not follow the Landau scaling. The present model predicts a decreasing rapidity width with particle mass for newly produced particles, not supporting a Landau type flow interpretation.

- Transverse pressure and strangeness dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion reactions (2005)
- Transverse hadron spectra from proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions from 2 AGeV to 21.3 ATeV are investigated within two independent transport approaches (HSD and UrQMD). For central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions at energies above E lab ~ 5 AGeV, the measured K +- transverse mass spectra have a larger inverse slope parameter than expected from the default calculations. The additional pressure - as suggested by lattice QCD calculations at finite quark chemical potential mu q and temperature T - might be generated by strong interactions in the early pre-hadronic/partonic phase of central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions. This is supported by a non-monotonic energy dependence of v2/pT in the present transport model.

- Determination of the fundamental scale of gravity and the number of space-time dimensions from high energetic particle interactions (2005)
- Within the ADD-model, we elaborate an idea by Vacavant and Hinchliffe and show quantitatively how to determine the fundamental scale of TeV-gravity and the number of compactified extra dimensions from data at LHC. We demonstrate that the ADD-model leads to strong correlations between the missing E_T in gravitons at different center of mass energies. This correlation puts strong constraints on this model for extra dimensions, if probed at sqr s=5.5 TeV and sqrt s=14 TeV at LHC.

- Elliptic flow analysis at RHIC : fluctuations vs. non-flow effects (2005)
- The cumulant method is applied to study elliptic flow (v_2) in Au+Au collisions at sqrt s=200 AGeV, with the UrQMD model. In this approach, the true event plane is known and both the non-flow effects and event-by-event spatial (epsilon) and v_2 fluctuations exist. Qualitatively, the hierarchy of v_2 's from two, four and six-particle cumulants is consistent with the STAR data, however, the magnitude of v_2 in the UrQMD model is only 60% of the data. We find that the four and six-particle cumulants are good measures of the real elliptic flow over a wide range of centralities except for the most central and very peripheral events. There the cumulant method is affected by the v_2 fluctuations. In mid-central collisions, the four and six-particle cumulants are shown to give a good estimation of the true differential v_2, especially at large transverse momentum, where the two-particle cumulant method is heavily affected by the non-flow effects.

- Reconstructing rho 0 and omega mesons from non-leptonic decays in C+C at 2AGeV (2005)
- We predict transverse and longitudinal momentum spectra and yields of rho 0 and omega mesons reconstructed from hadron correlations in C+C reactions at 2~AGeV. The rapidity and pT distributions for reconstructable rho 0 mesons differs strongly from the primary distribution, while the omega's distributions are only weakly modified. We discuss the temporal and spatial distributions of the particles emitted in the hadron channel. Finally, we report on the mass shift of the rho 0 due to its coupling to the N*(1520), which is observable in both the di-lepton and pi pi channel. Our calculations can be tested with the Hades experiment at GSI, Darmstadt.

- Trapping black hole remnants (2005)
- Large extra dimensions lower the Planck scale to values soon accessible. The production of TeV mass black holes at the LHC is one of the most exciting predictions. However, the final phases of the black hole's evaporation are still unknown and there are strong indications that a black hole remnant can be left. Since a certain fraction of such objects would be electrically charged, we argue that they can be trapped. In this paper, we examine the occurrence of such charged black hole remnants. These trapped remnants are of high interest, as they could be used to closely investigate the evaporation characteristics. Due to the absence of background from the collision region and the controlled initial state, the signal would be very clear. This would allow to extract information about the late stages of the evaporation process with high precision.