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- Inhibitorstudien und niedermolekulare Modifikationen der 5-Lipoxygenase (2009)
- Die 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) ist das Schlüsselenzym in der Biosynthese proinflammatorischer Leukotriene, die maßgeblich an der Entstehung allergischer und entzündlicher Erkrankungen wie Arthritis, Asthma und kardiovaskulären Erkrankungen beteiligt sind (23). Humane 5-LO besteht aus 673 Aminosäuren und besitzt ein Molekulargewicht von 77,8 kDa (25). Das Protein besteht aus einer größeren katalytischen Domäne, die ein zentrales Eisen(II)-Atom enthält, dass für die zweistufige LTA4-Bildung aus Arachidonsäure benötigt wird, und einer kleineren C2-ähnlichen Domäne, die Bereiche für die Membran- sowie Ca2+-Bindung enthält. Durch Stimulation von intakten Zellen kommt es zu einer Translokation der 5-LO an die Kernmembran. Die Wechselwirkung mit dem membranständigen FLAP fördert die 5-LO-Leukotrienbildung. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigte sich mit niedermolekularen Modifikationen der 5-LO durch U-73122 und Glutathion sowie mit der Charakterisierung von 5-LO-Inhibitoren. U-73122 ist ein Inhibitor, der in vitro und in vivo mit einem IC50-Wert von 30 nM bzw. 2,4 µM die 5-LO-Aktivität hemmt (2). U-73122 verfügt über eine thiol-reaktive Maleinimid-Gruppe, wodurch die Substanz kovalent an einige 5-LO-Cysteine (Cys-99, -159 und weitere) binden kann. Entsprechende U-73122-5-LO-Peptide konnten nach Trypsin-Verdau der 5-LO mit MALDI-MS-Messungen nachgewiesen werden. Für diesen Zweck musste eine effiziente Aufreinigung für native 5-LO (Reinheit > 95%) entwickelt werden. Um die Veränderung der 5-LO-Aktivität nach U-73122-Zugabe zu untersuchen, wurden Cystein/Serin-5-LO-Mutanten hergestellt. Es konnte festgestellt werden, dass die Mutante C416S-5-LO nicht mehr effektiv durch U-73122 gehemmt werden konnte. Daher ist anzunehmen, dass U-73122 an Cystein-416 der 5-LO bindet und die 5-LO-Produktbildung hemmt. Auf der 5-LO-Oberfläche kann ein Bereich lokalisiert werden, der einen Zugang für das Substrat zum aktiven Zentrum der 5-LO bilden könnte (238,239). Dieser Bereich liegt in unmittelbarer Nähe zu Cystein-416. Daher besteht die Möglichkeit, dass U-73122, nachdem es an Cystein-416 gebunden hat, diesen Bereich hemmend beeinflussen kann. Es konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass Glutathion an mehrere Cysteine der 5-LO (Cystein-99, -264 und -449) kovalent binden kann. Um Veränderungen der 5-LO-Aktivität durch in vivo Glutathionylierungen zu zeigen, wurden HeLa-Zellen mit 5-LO, Cystein-/Serin-5-LO-Mutanten sowie FLAP transfiziert und mit Diamid inkubiert. Es konnte festgestellt werden, dass die native sowie FLAP-gesteigerte 5-LO-Produktbildung durch Diamid gehemmt wird. Dies konnte ebenfalls für die Mutante 3W-5-LO beobachtet werden. Zusätzlich wurden verschiedene Cystein-/Serin-5-LO-Punktmutanten sowie eine 4fach Mutante (C159S/C300S/C416S/C418S-5-LO = 2D-5-LO) untersucht. Das Verhalten dieser Mutanten konnte in drei Gruppen eingeteilt werden. Gruppe A (C159S-, C300S- und C418S-5-LO) wurde durch Diamid nicht beeinflusst. Gruppe B (C416S- und 2D-5-LO) zeigte eine sehr starke Stimulation der 5-LO±FLAP-Leukotrienbildung nach Zugabe von Diamid. Bei Gruppe C (C99S-, C264S- und C449S-5-LO) konnte eine FLAP-gesteigerte 5-HETE-Bildung beobachtet werden. Durch Diamid kommt es zu Glutathionylierungen von zellulären Proteinen, da reduziertes Glutathion (GSH) zu reaktiveren oxidierten Glutathion (GSSG) umgesetzt wird. An der 5-LO-Oberfläche können in Folge an verschiedenen Cysteinen Glutathione binden. Durch die Glutathion-Bindung wird eine stark polare Struktur auf der 5-LO-Oberfläche eingebracht. Dadurch kommt es zu einer verminderten Membranbindung und Produktbildung der nativen 5-LO. Die 5-LO-Oberfläche der 2D-5-LO-Mutante kann an verschiedenen Positionen keine Glutathione mehr binden, es kommt es zu einer stärkeren Wechselwirkung mit Membranbestandteilen und zu einer erhöhten 5-LO-Leukotrienbildung. Für Celecoxib konnte gezeigt werden, dass neben der COX2-Hemmung auch die 5-LO-Aktivität mit einem IC50-Wert von 3-10 µM gehemmt werden kann (268). Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden HeLa-Zellen mit 5-LO±FLAP transfiziert, um den Einfluss von Celecoxib auf FLAP zu untersuchen. Celecoxib führt zu einer direkten Hemmung der 5-LO. ML3000 (Licofelon) wurde als dualer COX/5-LO-Inhibitor entwickelt und hemmt die 5-LO-Aktivität in intakten Zellen, aber nicht im Homogenat. Daher wurden Versuche mit 5-LO±FLAP-tranfizierten HeLa-Zellen durchgeführt, um den Einfluss von ML3000 auf die FLAP-gesteigerte 5-LO-Leukotrienbildung zu zeigen. Aus diesen und weiteren Ergebnissen unserer Arbeitsgruppe konnte gefolgert werden, dass ML3000 ein FLAP-Inhibitor ist (277). Garsubellin A ist strukturverwandt zu Hyperforin, einem dualen COX/5-LO-Inhibitor (204). Garsubellin A hemmt die 5-LO-Aktivität im Homogenat von PMNL und am gereinigten Enzym mit einer IC50 von 10-30 µM. Verbindungen, die den Bicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-Grundkörper des Garsubellin A und Hyperforin enthalten, wurden auf ihr inhibitorisches Potential getestet. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass der Bicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-Grundkörper alleine nicht für eine 5-LO-Hemmung ausreicht, sondern eine freie Carbonsäure sowie eine bis zwei Prenylierungen vorliegen müssen, um eine 5-LO-Hemmung zu erzielen. Sind diese Voraussetzungen vorhanden, wird die 5-LO-Aktivität in intakten PMNL mit einer IC50 von 10 µM und an gereinigter 5-LO mit 0,3-1 µM gehemmt.

- Nitric oxide-independent vasodilator rescues heme-oxidized soluble guanylate cyclase from proteosomal degradation (2009)
- Poster presentation: Background Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential vasodilator. In vascular diseases, oxidative stress attenuates NO signaling by both chemical scavenging of free NO and oxidation and down-regulation of its major intracellular receptor, the alpha/beta heterodimeric heme-containing soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). Oxidation can also induce loss of sGC's heme and responsiveness to NO. Results sGC activators such as BAY 58-2667 bind to oxidized/heme-free sGC and reactivate the enzyme to exert disease-specific vasodilation. Here we show that oxidation-induced down-regulation of sGC protein extends to isolated blood vessels. Mechanistically, degradation was triggered through sGC ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The heme-binding site ligand, BAY 58-2667, prevented sGC ubiquitination and stabilized both alpha and beta subunits. Conclusion Collectively, our data establish oxidation-ubiquitination of sGC as a modulator of NO/cGMP signaling and point to a new mechanism of action for sGC activating vasodilators by stabilizing their receptor, oxidized/heme-free sGC.

- Neuronal avalanches recorded in the awake and sleeping monkey do not show a power law but can be reproduced by a self-organized critical model (2009)
- Poster presentation: Self-organized critical (SOC) systems are complex dynamical systems that may express cascades of events, called avalanches [1]. The SOC state was proposed to govern brain function, because of its activity fluctuations over many orders of magnitude, its sensitivity to small input and its long term stability [2,3]. In addition, the critical state is optimal for information storage and processing [4]. Both hallmark features of SOC systems, a power law distribution f(s) for the avalanche size s and a branching parameter (bp) of unity, were found for neuronal avalanches recorded in vitro [5]. However, recordings in vivo yielded contradictory results [6]. Electrophysiological recordings in vivo only cover a small fraction of the brain, while criticality analysis assumes that the complete system is sampled. We hypothesized that spatial subsampling might influence the observed avalanche statistics. In addition, SOC models can have different connectivity, but always show a power law for f(s) and bp = 1 when fully sampled. This may not be the case under subsampling, however. Here, we wanted to know whether a state change from awake to asleep could be modeled by changing the connectivity of a SOC model without leaving the critical state. We simulated a SOC model [1] and calculated f(s) and bp obtained from sampling only the activity of a set of 4 × 4 sites, representing the electrode positions in the cortex. We compared these results with results obtained from multielectrode recordings of local field potentials (LFP) in the cortex of behaving monkeys. We calculated f(s) and bp for the LFP activity recorded while the monkey was either awake or asleep and compared these results to results obtained from two subsampled SOC model with different connectivity. f(s) and bp were very similar for both the experiments and the subsampled SOC model, but in contrast to the fully sampled model, f(s) did not show a power law and bp was smaller than unity. With increasing the distance between the sampling sites, f(s) changed from "apparently supercritical" to "apparently subcritical" distributions in both the model and the LFP data. f(s) and bp calculated from LFP recorded during awake and asleep differed. These changes could be explained by altering the connectivity in the SOC model. Our results show that subsampling can prevent the observation of the characteristic power law and bp in SOC systems, and misclassifications of critical systems as sub- or supercritical are possible. In addition, a change in f(s) and bp for different states (awake/asleep) does not necessarily imply a change from criticality to sub- or supercriticality, but can also be explained by a change in the effective connectivity of the network without leaving the critical state.

- Self-generated neural activity : models and perspective (2009)
- Poster presentation: The brain is autonomously active and this self-sustained neural activity is in general modulated, but not driven, by the sensory input data stream [1,2]. Traditionally one has regarded this eigendynamics as resulting from inter-modular recurrent neural activity [3]. Understanding the basic modules for cognitive computation is, in this view, the primary focus of research and the overall neural dynamics would be determined by the the topology of the intermodular pathways. Here we examine an alternative point of view, asking whether certain aspects of the neural eigendynamics have a central functional role for overall cognitive computation [4,5]. Transiently stable neural activity is regularly observed on the cognitive time-scale of 80–100 ms, with indications that neural competition [6] plays an important role in the selection of the transiently stable neural ensembles [7], also denoted winning coalitions [8]. We report on a theory approach which implements these two principles, transient-state dynamics and neural competition, in terms of an associative neural network with clique encoding [9]. A cognitive system [10] with a non-trivial internal eigendynamics has two seemingly contrasting tasks to fulfill. The internal processes need to be regular and not chaotic on one side, but sensitive to the afferent sensory stimuli on the other side. We show, that these two contrasting demands can be reconciled within our approach based on competitive transient-state dynamics, when allowing the sensory stimuli to modulate the competition for the next winning coalition. By testing the system with the bars problem, we find an emerging cognitive capability. Only based on the two basic architectural principles, neural competition and transient-state dynamics, with no explicit algorithmic encoding, the system performs on its own a non-linear independent component analysis of input data stream. The system has rudimentary biological features. All learning is local Hebbian-style, unsupervised and online. It exhibits an ever-ongoing eigendynamics and at no time is the state or the value of synaptic strengths reset or the system restarted; there is no separation between training and performance. We believe that this kind of approach – cognitive computation with autonomously active neural networks – to be an emerging field, relevant both for system neuroscience and synthetic cognitive systems.

- A mechanism for achieving zero-lag long-range synchronization of neural activity (2009)
- Poster presentation: How can two distant neural assemblies synchronize their firings at zero-lag even in the presence of non-negligible delays in the transfer of information between them? Neural synchronization stands today as one of the most promising mechanisms to counterbalance the huge anatomical and functional specialization of the different brain areas. However, and albeit more evidence is being accumulated in favor of its functional role as a binding mechanism of distributed neural responses, the physical and anatomical substrate for such a dynamic and precise synchrony, especially zero-lag even in the presence of non-negligible delays, remains unclear. Here we propose a simple network motif that naturally accounts for zero-lag synchronization of spiking assemblies of neurons for a wide range of temporal delays. We demonstrate that when two distant neural assemblies do not interact directly but relaying their dynamics via a third mediating single neuron or population and eventually achieve zero-lag coherent firing. Extensive numerical simulations of populations of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons interacting in such a network are analyzed. The results show that even with axonal delays as large as 15 ms the distant neural populations can synchronize their firings at zero-lag in a millisecond precision after the exchange of a few spikes. The role of noise and a distribution of axonal delays in the synchronized dynamics of the neural populations are also studied confirming the robustness of this sync mechanism. The proposed network module is densely embedded within the complex functional architecture of the brain and especially within the reciprocal thalamocortical interactions where the role of indirect pathways mimicking direct cortico-cortical fibers has been already suggested to facilitate trans-areal cortical communication. In summary the robust neural synchronization mechanism presented here arises as a consequence of the relay and redistribution of the dynamics performed by a mediating neuronal population. In opposition to previous works, neither inhibitory, gap junctions, nor complex networks need to be invoked to provide a stable mechanism of zero-phase correlated activity of neural populations in the presence of large conduction delays.

- Detection of single trial power coincidence for the identification of distributed cortical processes in a behavioral context (2009)
- Poster presentation: The analysis of neuronal processes distributed across multiple cortical areas aims at the identification of interactions between signals recorded at different sites. Such interactions can be described by measuring the stability of phase angles in the case of oscillatory signals or other forms of signal dependencies for less regular signals. Before, however, any form of interaction can be analyzed at a given time and frequency, it is necessary to assess whether all potentially contributing signals are present. We have developed a new statistical procedure for the detection of coincident power in multiple simultaneously recorded analog signals, allowing the classification of events as 'non-accidental co-activation'. This method can effectively operate on single trials, each lasting only for a few seconds. Signals need to be transformed into time-frequency space, e.g. by applying a short-time Fourier transformation using a Gaussian window. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used in order to weight the resulting power patterns according to their frequency. Subsequently, the weighted power patterns are binarized via applying a threshold. At this final stage, significant power coincidence is determined across all subgroups of channel combinations for individual frequencies by selecting the maximum ratio between observed and expected duration of co-activation as test statistic. The null hypothesis that the activity in each channel is independent from the activity in every other channel is simulated by independent, random rotation of the respective activity patterns. We applied this procedure to single trials of multiple simultaneously sampled local field potentials (LFPs) obtained from occipital, parietal, central and precentral areas of three macaque monkeys. Since their task was to use visual cues to perform a precise arm movement, co-activation of numerous cortical sites was expected. In a data set with 17 channels analyzed, up to 13 sites expressed simultaneous power in the range between 5 and 240 Hz. On average, more than 50% of active channels participated at least once in a significant power co-activation pattern (PCP). Because the significance of such PCPs can be evaluated at the level of single trials, we are confident that this procedure is useful to study single trial variability with sufficient accuracy that much of the behavioral variability can be explained by the dynamics of the underlying distributed neuronal processes.

- Detection of task-related synchronous firing patterns (2009)
- Poster presentation: Background To test the importance of synchronous neuronal firing for information processing in the brain, one has to investigate if synchronous firing strength is correlated to the experimental subjects. This requires a tool that can compare the strength of the synchronous firing across different conditions, while at the same time it should correct for other features of neuronal firing such as spike rate modulation or the auto-structure of the spike trains that might co-occur with synchronous firing. Here we present the bi- and multivariate extension of previously developed method NeuroXidence [1,2], which allows for comparing the amount of synchronous firing between different conditions. ...

- A model for the joint evaluation of burstiness and regularity in oscillatory spike trains (2009)
- Poster presentation: Introduction The ability of neurons to emit different firing patterns is considered relevant for neuronal information processing. In dopaminergic neurons, prominent patterns include highly regular pacemakers with separate spikes and stereotyped intervals, processes with repetitive bursts and partial regularity, and irregular spike trains with nonstationary properties. In order to model and quantify these processes and the variability of their patterns with respect to pharmacological and cellular properties, we aim to describe the two dimensions of burstiness and regularity in a single model framework. Methods We present a stochastic spike train model in which the degree of burstiness and the regularity of the oscillation are described independently and with two simple parameters. In this model, a background oscillation with independent and normally distributed intervals gives rise to Poissonian spike packets with a Gaussian firing intensity. The variability of inter-burst intervals and the average number of spikes in each burst indicate regularity and burstiness, respectively. These parameters can be estimated by fitting the model to the autocorrelograms. This allows to assign every spike train a position in the two-dimensional space described by regularity and burstiness and thus, to investigate the dependence of the firing patterns on different experimental conditions. Finally, burst detection in single spike trains is possible within the model because the parameter estimates determine the appropriate bandwidth that should be used for burst identification. Results and Discussion We applied the model to a sample data set obtained from dopaminergic substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area neurons recorded extracellularly in vivo and studied differences between the firing activity of dopaminergic neurons in wildtype and K-ATP channel knock-out mice. The model is able to represent a variety of discharge patterns and to describe changes induced pharmacologically. It provides a simple and objective classification scheme for the observed spike trains into pacemaker, irregular and bursty processes. In addition to the simple classification, changes in the parameters can be studied quantitatively, also including the properties related to bursting behavior. Interestingly, the proposed algorithm for burst detection may be applicable also to spike trains with nonstationary firing rates if the remaining parameters are unaffected. Thus, the proposed model and its burst detection algorithm can be useful for the description and investigation of neuronal firing patterns and their variability with cellular and experimental conditions.

- Auto-structure of spike trains matters for testing on synchronous activity (2009)
- Poster presentation: Coordinated neuronal activity across many neurons, i.e. synchronous or spatiotemporal pattern, had been believed to be a major component of neuronal activity. However, the discussion if coordinated activity really exists remained heated and controversial. A major uncertainty was that many analysis approaches either ignored the auto-structure of the spiking activity, assumed a very simplified model (poissonian firing), or changed the auto-structure by spike jittering. We studied whether a statistical inference that tests whether coordinated activity is occurring beyond chance can be made false if one ignores or changes the real auto-structure of recorded data. To this end, we investigated the distribution of coincident spikes in mutually independent spike-trains modeled as renewal processes. We considered Gamma processes with different shape parameters as well as renewal processes in which the ISI distribution is log-normal. For Gamma processes of integer order, we calculated the mean number of coincident spikes, as well as the Fano factor of the coincidences, analytically. We determined how these measures depend on the bin width and also investigated how they depend on the firing rate, and on rate difference between the neurons. We used Monte-Carlo simulations to estimate the whole distribution for these parameters and also for other values of gamma. Moreover, we considered the effect of dithering for both of these processes and saw that while dithering does not change the average number of coincidences, it does change the shape of the coincidence distribution. Our major findings are: 1) the width of the coincidence count distribution depends very critically and in a non-trivial way on the detailed properties of the inter-spike interval distribution, 2) the dependencies of the Fano factor on the coefficient of variation of the ISI distribution are complex and mostly non-monotonic. Moreover, the Fano factor depends on the very detailed properties of the individual point processes, and cannot be predicted by the CV alone. Hence, given a recorded data set, the estimated value of CV of the ISI distribution is not sufficient to predict the Fano factor of the coincidence count distribution, and 3) spike jittering, even if it is as small as a fraction of the expected ISI, can falsify the inference on coordinated firing. In most of the tested cases and especially for complex synchronous and spatiotemporal pattern across many neurons, spike jittering increased the likelihood of false positive finding very strongly. Last, we discuss a procedure [1] that considers the complete auto-structure of each individual spike-train for testing whether synchrony firing occurs at chance and therefore overcomes the danger of an increased level of false positives.

- Mathematical modeling of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (2009)
- Poster presentation: An important challenge in neuroscience is understanding how networks of neurons go about processing information. Synapses are thought to play an essential role in cellular information processing however quantitative and mathematical models of the underlying physiologic processes that occur at synaptic active zones are lacking. We are generating mathematical models of synaptic vesicle dynamics at a well-characterized model synapse, the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. This synapse's simplicity, accessibility to various electrophysiological recording and imaging techniques, and the genetic malleability intrinsic to Drosophila system make it ideal for computational and mathematical studies. We have employed a reductionist approach and started by modeling single presynaptic boutons. Synaptic vesicles can be divided into different pools; however, a quantitative understanding of their dynamics at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction is lacking [4]. We performed biologically realistic simulations of high and low release probability boutons [3] using partial differential equations (PDE) taking into account not only the evolution in time but also the spatial structure in two dimensions (the extension to three dimensions will be implemented soon). PDEs are solved using UG, a program library for the calculation of multi-dimensional PDEs solved using a finite volume approach and implicit time stepping methods leading to extended linear equation systems be solvedwith multi-grid methods [3,4]. Numerical calculations are done on multi-processor computers for fast calculations using different parameters in order to asses the biological feasibility of different models. In preliminary simulations, we modeled vesicle dynamics as a diffusion process describing exocytosis as Neumann streams at synaptic active zones. The initial results obtained with these models are consistent with experimental data. However, this should be regarded as a work in progress. Further refinements will be implemented, including simulations using morphologically realistic geometries which were generated from confocal scans of the neuromuscular junction using NeuRA (a Neuron Reconstruction Algorithm). Other parameters such as glutamate diffusion and reuptake dynamics, as well as postsynaptic receptor kinetics will be incorporated as well.