G-CSC Report 2010
- The present report gives a short summary of the research of the Goethe Center for Scientific Computing (G-CSC) of the Goethe University Frankfurt. G-CSC aims at developing and applying methods and tools for modelling and numerical simulation of problems from empirical science and technology. In particular, fast solvers for partial differential equations (i.e. pde) such as robust, parallel, and adaptive multigrid methods and numerical methods for stochastic differential equations are developed. These methods are highly adanvced and allow to solve complex problems..
The G-CSC is organised in departments and interdisciplinary research groups. Departments are localised directly at the G-CSC, while the task of interdisciplinary research groups is to bridge disciplines and to bring scientists form different departments together. Currently, G-CSC consists of the department Simulation and Modelling and the interdisciplinary research group Computational Finance.
World robotics 2013 : industrial robots
- Unique publication on the worldwide distribution of industrial robots based on company reports: about 40 country reports 2007 - 2012; by application areas; by industrial branches; by types of robots; and by other technical and economic variables. Data on production, exports and imports; Trends in robot densities, i.e. number of robots; per 10,000 persons employed in relevant sectors; Forecast 2013 - 2016; Special Features: Case Studies on Profitability of Robot Investments
The easy-to-please construction in Middle English
- The aim of this article is to follow the changes that took place in the history of easy-to-please constructions. To fully apprehend that, we will begin by looking at Middle English infinitives and the change which affected them. Our attempt here is to prove that Early Middle English to was at its intermediate stage of development, i.e. it was neither a preposition nor inflection. In Late Middle English, to reached its final stage of a gradual evolution heading TR On account of the analysis of to and infinitives in Middle English, new constructions in which easv-to-please appear will be explained.
On translation of tourist information texts
Integrating movement ecology with biodiversity research - exploring new avenues to address spatiotemporal biodiversity dynamics
Carsten M. Buchmann
Jana A. Eccard
- Movement of organisms is one of the key mechanisms shaping biodiversity, e.g. the distribution of genes, individuals and species in space and time. Recent technological and conceptual advances have improved our ability to assess the causes and consequences of individual movement, and led to the emergence of the new field of ‘movement ecology’. Here, we outline how movement ecology can contribute to the broad field of biodiversity research, i.e. the study of processes and patterns of life among and across different scales, from genes to ecosystems, and we propose a conceptual framework linking these hitherto largely separated fields of research. Our framework builds on the concept of movement ecology for individuals, and demonstrates its importance for linking individual organismal movement with biodiversity. First, organismal movements can provide ‘mobile links’ between habitats or ecosystems, thereby connecting resources, genes, and processes among otherwise separate locations. Understanding these mobile links and their impact on biodiversity will be facilitated by movement ecology, because mobile links can be created by different modes of movement (i.e., foraging, dispersal, migration) that relate to different spatiotemporal scales and have differential effects on biodiversity. Second, organismal movements can also mediate coexistence in communities, through ‘equalizing’ and ‘stabilizing’ mechanisms. This novel integrated framework provides a conceptual starting point for a better understanding of biodiversity dynamics in light of individual movement and space-use behavior across spatiotemporal scales. By illustrating this framework with examples, we argue that the integration of movement ecology and biodiversity research will also enhance our ability to conserve diversity at the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels.
Selection of functional human antibodies from retroviral display libraries
Johannes H. Urban
Richard M. Schneider
Christian J. Buchholz
- Antibody library technology represents a powerful tool for the discovery and design of antibodies with high affinity and specificity for their targets. To extend the technique to the expression and selection of antibody libraries in an eukaryotic environment, we provide here a proof of concept that retroviruses can be engineered for the display and selection of variable single-chain fragment (scFv) libraries. A retroviral library displaying the repertoire obtained after a single round of selection of a human synthetic scFv phage display library on laminin was generated. For selection, antigen-bound virus was efficiently recovered by an overlay with cells permissive for infection. This approach allowed more than 10(3)-fold enrichment of antigen binders in a single selection cycle. After three selection cycles, several scFvs were recovered showing similar laminin-binding activities but improved expression levels in mammalian cells as compared with a laminin-specific scFv selected by the conventional phage display approach. Thus, translational problems that occur when phage-selected antibodies have to be transferred onto mammalian expression systems to exert their therapeutic potential can be avoided by the use of retroviral display libraries.
Language and emotive factors : the outline of problems involved
- The cognitive framework seems to comply with the need of interdisciplinary outlook on the issue of emotions, as it itself draws upon findings of psychological, anthropological and philosophical research. Along with undertaking further studies on the conceptualization of emotions in different languages, from the detailed analysis of the repertoire of linguistic means used for talking about emotions to investigation into tendencies to use metaphors or metonymies to talk about emotions, some broader conclusions could be drawn. The greatest challenge seems to be establishing whether there are any cultural (social, economical, conventional, political, religious) conditions that may influence the relevant changes in conceptualizing emotions in different languages and whether it is possible to point to any laws or regularities that would govern these changes.
How to spice up a breakfast cereal or the translation of culturally bound referential items in “The bluest eye” by Toni Morrison and “Vineland” by Thomas Pynchon
- This article will attempt to suggest translation procedures necessary to translate culturally bound items in the referential level of a literary work illustrated with examples from two novels: “The Bluest Eye” by Toni Morrison and “Vineland” by Thomas Pynchon. First, the article will include a general description of the referential level in literary works offering possible avenues of 285 its rendition, then and finally suggest a translation methodology and techniques together with practical examples of the theory at work.
Characterising postural sway fluctuations in humans using linear and nonlinear methods
- Introduction: Postural control is a prerequisite to many everyday and sporting activities which requires the interaction of multiple sensorimotor processes. As long as we have no balance disorders, the maintenance of an erect standing position is taken for granted with automatic running control processes. It is well known that with increasing age or disease balance problems occur which often cause fall-related injuries. To assess balance performance, posturography is widely applied in which body sway is traditionally viewed as a manifestation of random fluctuations. Thus, the amount of sway is solely used as an index of postural stability, that is, less sway is an indication of better control. But, traditional measures of variability fail to account for the temporal organisation of postural sway. The concept of nonlinear dynamics suggests that variability in the motor output is not random but structured. It provides the stimulus to reveal the functionality of postural sway. This thesis evaluates nonlinear analysis tools in addition to classic linear methods in terms of age-related modifications of postural control and under different standing conditions in order to broaden the existing knowledge of postural control processes.
Methods: Static posturographic analyses were conducted which included the recording of centre of pressure (COP) time series by means of a force plate. Linear and nonlinear methods were used to quantify postural sway variability in order to evaluate both the amount and structure of sway. Classic time and frequency domain COP parameters were computed. In addition, wavelet transform (WT), multiscale entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis, and scaled windowed variance method were applied to COP signals in order to derive structural COP parameters. Two experiments were performed. 1) 16 young (26.1 ± 6.7 years), healthy subjects were asked to adopt a bipedal stance under single- and dual-task conditions. Three trials were conduced each with a different sampling duration: 30, 60, and 300 seconds [s]. 2) 26 young (28.15 ± 5.86 years) and 13 elderly (72 ± 7 years) subjects stood quietly for 60 s on five different surfaces which imposed different biomechanical constraints: level ground (LG), one foot on a step (ST), uphill (UH), downhill (DH), and slope (SL). Additional to COP recordings, limb load symmetry was assessed via foot pressure insoles.
Results: We found a higher sensitivity of structural COP parameters to modulations of postural control and partly an improved evaluation of sway dynamics in longer COP recordings. WT revealed a reweighing of frequency bands in response to altered standing conditions. Scaling exponents and entropy values of COP signals were task-dependent. Higher entropy values were found under the dual-task and condition ST. The time scales affected under the altered standing positions differed between groups and sway directions. Mainly larger posturograms were found in the elderly. Age effects were especially revealed in position ST and concerning medial-lateral COP signals. Load asymmetry was stronger in elderly subjects for LG, UH, and DH positions.
Discussion: Modifications of multiple time scales corresponds to an interplay of control subsystems to cope with the altered task demands. The affected time scales are age-dependent suggesting a change of control processes. Higher irregularity under the dual-task indicates a more complex motor output which is interpreted as less attentional investment into postural control. Larger complexity is evident for ST in contrast to LG position. ST obviously challenges lateral sway which is counteracted differently between groups. Load asymmetry suggests that especially elderly subjects adopt a step-initiation strategy.
Conclusion: A continued application of nonlinear methods is necessary to broaden the understanding of postural control mechanisms and to identify classifiers for balance dysfunctions. Structural COP parameters provide a more comprehensive indication of postural control system properties between groups and task demands. COP recordings of at least 60 s are recommended to adequately quantify COP signal structure. The analysis of postural strategies in everyday activities increases the ecological validity of postural control studies and can provide valuable information regarding the development of effective rehabilitation programs.
Expression of VPAC1 in a murine model of allergic asthma
Jan David Alexander Groneberg
- Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter of the inhibitory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nervous system and influences the mammalian airway function in various ways. Hence known for bronchodilatory, immunomodulatory and mucus secretion modulating effects by interacting with the VIP receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2, it is discussed to be a promising target for pharmaceutical intervention in common diseases such as COPD and bronchial asthma. Here we examined the expression and transcriptional regulation of VPAC1 in the lungs of allergic mice using an ovalbumin (OVA) -induced model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized to OVA and challenged with an OVA aerosol. In parallel a control group was sham sensitized with saline. VPAC1 expression was examined using RT-PCR and real time-PCR studies were performed to quantify gene transcription. VPAC1 mRNA expression was detected in all samples of OVA-sensitized and challenged animals and control tissues. Further realtime analysis did not show significant differences at the transcriptional level.
Although the present studies did not indicate a major transcriptional regulation of VPAC1 in states of allergic airway inflammation, immunomodulatory effects of VPAC1 might still be present due to regulations at the translational level.