In memory of Lord Rothschild, PhD, FRS, J.P. born the 8th February, 1868, died the 27th August, 1937 : (with 13 photographs)
Deutsch - eine Sprache im Niedergang?
- Ich werde vier Fragen behandeln: 1. Wie viele Menschen sprechen und lernen Deutsch? 2. Wie vernachlässigen die Deutschen ihre Sprache? 3. Warum mögen die Deutschen ihre Sprache nicht? 4. Worum hat die deutsche Sprache trotzdem eine Chance?
Genome-wide analysis of growth phase-dependent translational and transcriptional regulation in halophilic archaea : research article
Stephan C. Schuster
- Background Differential expression of genes can be regulated on many different levels. Most global studies of gene regulation concentrate on transcript level regulation, and very few global analyses of differential translational efficiencies exist. The studies have revealed that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and human cell lines translational regulation plays a significant role. Additional species have not been investigated yet. Particularly, until now no global study of translational control with any prokaryotic species was available. Results A global analysis of translational control was performed with two haloarchaeal model species, Halobacterium salinarum and Haloferax volcanii. To identify differentially regulated genes, exponentially growing and stationary phase cells were compared. More than 20% of H. salinarum transcripts are translated with non-average efficiencies. By far the largest group is comprised of genes that are translated with above-average efficiency specifically in exponential phase, including genes for many ribosomal proteins, RNA polymerase subunits, enzymes, and chemotaxis proteins. Translation of 1% of all genes is specifically repressed in either of the two growth phases. For comparison, DNA microarrays were also used to identify differential transcriptional regulation in H. salinarum, and 17% of all genes were found to have non-average transcript levels in exponential versus stationary phase. In H. volcanii, 12% of all genes are translated with non-average efficiencies. The overlap with H. salinarum is negligible. In contrast to H. salinarum, 4.6% of genes have non-average translational efficiency in both growth phases, and thus they might be regulated by other stimuli than growth phase. Conclusions For the first time in any prokaryotic species it was shown that a significant fraction of genes is under differential translational control. Groups of genes with different regulatory patterns were discovered. However, neither the fractions nor the identity of regulated genes are conserved between H. salinarum and H. volcanii, indicating that prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes use differential translational control for the regulation of gene expression, but that the identity of regulated genes is not conserved For 70 H. salinarum genes potentiation of regulation was observed, but for the majority of regulated genes either transcriptional or translational regulation is employed.
Waves of genomic hitchhikers shed light on the evolution of gamebirds (Aves: Galliformes) : research article
Jan Ole Kriegs
- Background The phylogenetic tree of Galliformes (gamebirds, including megapodes, currassows, guinea fowl, New and Old World quails, chicken, pheasants, grouse, and turkeys) has been considerably remodeled over the last decades as new data and analytical methods became available. Analyzing presence/absence patterns of retroposed elements avoids the problems of homoplastic characters inherent in other methodologies. In gamebirds, chicken repeats 1 (CR1) are the most prevalent retroposed elements, but little is known about the activity of their various subtypes over time. Ascertaining the fixation patterns of CR1 elements would help unravel the phylogeny of gamebirds and other poorly resolved avian clades. Results We analyzed 1,978 nested CR1 elements and developed a multidimensional approach taking advantage of their transposition in transposition character (TinT) to characterize the fixation patterns of all 22 known chicken CR1 subtypes. The presence/absence patterns of those elements that were active at different periods of gamebird evolution provided evidence for a clade (Cracidae + (Numididae + (Odontophoridae + Phasianidae))) not including Megapodiidae; and for Rollulus as the sister taxon of the other analyzed Phasianidae. Genomic trace sequences of the turkey genome further demonstrated that the endangered African Congo Peafowl (Afropavo congensis) is the sister taxon of the Asian Peafowl (Pavo), rejecting other predominantly morphology-based groupings, and that phasianids are monophyletic, including the sister taxa Tetraoninae and Meleagridinae. Conclusions The TinT information concerning relative fixation times of CR1 subtypes enabled us to efficiently investigate gamebird phylogeny and to reconstruct an unambiguous tree topology. This method should provide a useful tool for investigations in other taxonomic groups as well.
The invariant phenylalanine of precursor proteins discloses the importance of Omp85 for protein translocation into cyanelles
Jürgen M. Steiner
- Background Today it is widely accepted that plastids are of cyanobacterial origin. During their evolutionary integration into the metabolic and regulatory networks of the host cell the engulfed cyanobacteria lost their independency. This process was paralleled by a massive gene transfer from symbiont to the host nucleus challenging the development of a retrograde protein translocation system to ensure plastid functionality. Such a system includes specific targeting signals of the proteins needed for the function of the plastid and membrane-bound machineries performing the transfer of these proteins across the envelope membranes. At present, most informations on protein translocation are obtained by the analysis of land plants. However, the analysis of protein import into the primitive plastids of glaucocystophyte algae, revealed distinct features placing this system as a tool to understand the evolutionary development of translocation systems. Here, bacterial outer membrane proteins of the Omp85 family have recently been discussed as evolutionary seeds for the development of translocation systems. Results To further explore the initial mode of protein translocation, the observed phenylalanine dependence for protein translocation into glaucophyte plastids was pursued in detail. We document that indeed the phenylalanine has an impact on both, lipid binding and binding to proteoliposomes hosting an Omp85 homologue. Comparison to established import experiments, however, unveiled a major importance of the phenylalanine for recognition by Omp85. This finding is placed into the context of the evolutionary development of the plastid translocon. Conclusion The phenylalanine in the N-terminal domain signs as a prerequisite for protein translocation across the outer membrane assisted by a primitive translocon. This amino acid appears to be optimized for specifically targeting the Omp85 protein without enforcing aggregation on the membrane surface. The phenylalanine has subsequently been lost in the transit sequence, but can be found at the C-terminal position of the translocating pore. Thereby, the current hypothesis of Omp85 being the prokaryotic contribution to the ancestral Toc translocon can be supported.
Nonenzymic hydrolysis at phosphate tetrahedra
Robert Keith Osterheld
Iris : Unterhaltungsblatt für Freunde des Schönen und Nützlichen [Unterhaltungsblatt für Kunst, Literatur und Poesie]
- Digitalisat der Inhaltsverzeichnisse aller nachgewiesenen Jahrgänge (1819 - 1828)
Influence of prostaglandin E2, D2 and J2 on IL-12-related cytokine subunits in murine dendritic cells
- IL-12-related cytokines produced by dendritic cells are considered to be major inducers of adaptive immune system activation upon innate antigen-sensing. IL-23 specifically is currently being discussed to support the differentiation of potentially auto-aggressive Th17 cells. Prostaglandins as bystander cell products are known to modulate the translation of this process. While previous studies focused therefore on IL-12, ignoring the existence of new IL-12-related cytokines IL-23 and IL-27, this study analysed effects of prostaglandin E2, D2 and 15d-PGJ2 on the secretion pattern of these subunits in the murine immature Langerhans cell line XS52 and the murine immature myeloid dendritic cell line JawsII under TLR4 (LPS) and TLR9 (CpG) stimulation as well as effects of prostaglandins on the murine Th1 cell line IF12 in coculture and upon Con A treatment. In serial semi-quantitative RT-PCR of the IL-12 related cytokines of the XS52 cell line and the JawsII cell line, the p40 subunit was upregulated in both DC cell lines upon TLR-stimulation, the IL-23p19 subunit constantly expressed in XS52 and upregulated in JawsII upon TLR-stimulation, while the IL-27p28 subunit was only weekly expressed under additional stimulating aCD40 Ab treatment. IL-12p35 could only be detected in the immature myeloid cell line. The protein expression of the p40 subunit was measured in Western blot assays following SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions in XS52. The Western blot-based antibody specification allowed the establishment of a p40-specific ELISPOT assays, where overadditive upregulation of the number of LPS-stimulated spot forming XS52 cells was observed under stimulation with PGE2 while PGD2 depressed the number of LPS-stimulated cytokine secreting cells. Contrary IL-12p40 could not be detected in supernatants of the JawsII cell line. Both DC cell lines were further tested for differential response towards different TLR stimulation described as a defining feature of DC subsets. While subunit expression on transcription level did not differ, only LPS-treatment led to constant IL-12p40 expression in supernatants of XS52. CpG-treatment of XS52 cells led to constantly high IL-12p40 levels under additional aCD40 Ab treatment. In IFN-g ELISPOT assays, prostaglandin effects were further analysed in IF12 Th1 cells upon Con A treatment or alternatively upon treatment in a coculture model with the syngeneic cell line XS52 and the T lymphocyte-specific protein ovalbumin. While PGE2 depressed the amount of activated Th1, PGD2 showed no effect. In conclusion, a coculture model has been generated that allows the analysis of DC and TC interactions. The importance of prostaglandins as differential regulators in time- and tissue-dependence in inflammatory processes has been demonstrated. These results accord with recent observations of an upregulation of IL-23 secretion upon PGE2 treatment.
Die drei Frauen in Deutschland als Gestalten der Sage, des Märchens und des christlichen Kultes
A contribution to a knowledge of Canadian ticks
Charles Gordon Hewitt
- During recent years our knowledge of the biology and distribution of the ticks has greatly increased owing to the discovery of the economic importance of this group as carriers of certain serious diseases to man and domesticated animals. In North America we have the North American Fever Tick Margaropus annulatus Say, the well known disseminator of splenitic or Texas fever of cattle, which is credited with an annual loss of about fifty million dollars to the cattle industry of the southern States, and the Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Tick, Dermacentor venuslus, the responsible agent for this human disease which has a high rate of mortality. With tlie exception of the work of Dr. Seymour Hadwen, Assistant Pathologist of the Health of Animals Brancl-i of the Dominion Department of Agriculture and, to a lesser extent, of myself, no serious attempt has been made to study the ticks occurring in Canada. The present account has been prepared with a view to bringing together the hitherto unpublished results of rny own work, and those of Hadwen, together with such scattered references as I have been able to find. It is hoped that this information will constitute a basis for further work, and that the comparative meagreness of the records will stimulate others to add to our knowledge of a group which offers problems of unusual interest. Except where it is otherwise stated the records in the following account are mine. Hadwen has studied the life-histories of a number of the species and in such cases his results have been given in full or summarized.