A Satellite-Based Surface Radiation Climatology Derived by Combining Climate Data Records and Near-Real-Time Data
- This study presents a method for adjusting long-term climate data records (CDRs) for the integrated use with near-real-time data using the example of surface incoming solar irradiance (SIS). Recently, a 23-year long (1983–2005) continuous SIS CDR has been generated based on the visible channel (0.45–1 μm) of the MVIRI radiometers onboard the geostationary Meteosat First Generation Platform. The CDR is available from the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF). Here, it is assessed whether a homogeneous extension of the SIS CDR to the present is possible with operationally generated surface radiation data provided by CM SAF using the SEVIRI and GERB instruments onboard the Meteosat Second Generation satellites. Three extended CM SAF SIS CDR versions consisting of MVIRI-derived SIS (1983–2005) and three different SIS products derived from the SEVIRI and GERB instruments onboard the MSG satellites (2006 onwards) were tested. A procedure to detect shift inhomogeneities in the extended data record (1983–present) was applied that combines the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT) and a penalized maximal T-test with visual inspection. Shift detection was done by comparing the SIS time series with the ground stations mean, in accordance with statistical significance. Several stations of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) and about 50 stations of the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) over Europe were used as the ground-based reference. The analysis indicates several breaks in the data record between 1987 and 1994 probably due to artefacts in the raw data and instrument failures. After 2005 the MVIRI radiometer was replaced by the narrow-band SEVIRI and the broadband GERB radiometers and a new retrieval algorithm was applied. This induces significant challenges for the homogenisation across the satellite generations. Homogenisation is performed by applying a mean-shift correction depending on the shift size of any segment between two break points to the last segment (2006–present). Corrections are applied to the most significant breaks that can be related to satellite changes. This study focuses on the European region, but the methods can be generalized to other regions. To account for seasonal dependence of the mean-shifts the correction was performed independently for each calendar month. In comparison to the ground-based reference the homogenised data record shows an improvement over the original data record in terms of anomaly correlation and bias. In general the method can also be applied for the adjustment of satellite datasets addressing other variables to bridge the gap between CDRs and near-real-time data.
Die indische Medizin Ayurveda in Deutschland
"Denervation" of autonomous nervous system in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension by low-dose radiation: a case report with an unexpected outcome
Thomas J. Vogl
- Vasointestinal peptide metabolism plays a key physiological role in multimodular levels of vasodilatory, smooth muscle cell proliferative, parenchymal, and inflammatory lung reactions. In animal studies, vasointestinal peptide relaxes isolated pulmonary arterial segments from several mammalian species in vitro and neutralizes the pulmonary vasoconstrictor effect of endothelin. In some animal models, it reduces pulmonary vascular resistance in vivo and in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. A 58-year-old woman presented with dyspnea and mild edema of the lower extremities. A bronchoscopy was performed without any suspicious findings suggesting a central tumor or other infiltrative disease. Endobronchial ultrasound revealed enlarged pulmonary arteries containing thrombi, a few enlarged lymph nodes, and enlarged mediastinal tissue anatomy with suspicion for mediastinal infiltration of a malignant process. We estimated that less than 10% of the peripheral vascular bed of the lung was involved in direct consolidated fibrosis as demonstrated in the left upper lobe apex. Further, direct involvement of fibrosis around the main stems of the pulmonary arteries was assumed to be low from positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Assuming a positive influence of low-dose radiation, it was not expected that this could have reduced pulmonary vascular resistance by over two thirds of the initial result. However; it was noted that this patient had idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension mixed with "acute" (mediastinal) fibrosis which could have contributed to the unexpected success of reduction of pulmonary vascular resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, probably as a result of low-dose radiation to the pulmonary arterial main stems. The patient continues to have no specific complaints concerning her idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.
An etiologic profile of anemia in 405 geriatric patients
- Background. Anemia is a common condition in the elderly and a significant risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality, reducing not only functional capacity and mobility but also quality of life. Currently, few data are available regarding anemia in hospitalized geriatric patients. Our retrospective study investigated epidemiology and causes of anemia in 405 hospitalized geriatric patients. Methods. Data analysis was performed using laboratory parameters determined during routine hospital admission procedures (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin saturation, C-reactive protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and creatinine) in addition to medical history and demographics. Results. Anemia affected approximately two-thirds of subjects. Of 386 patients with recorded hemoglobin values, 66.3% were anemic according to WHO criteria, mostly (85.1%) in a mild form. Anemia was primarily due to iron deficiency (65%), frequently due to underlying chronic infection (62.1%), or of mixed etiology involving a combination of chronic disease and iron deficiency, with absolute iron deficiency playing a comparatively minor role. Conclusion. Greater awareness of anemia in the elderly is warranted due to its high prevalence and negative effect on outcomes, hospitalization duration, and mortality. Geriatric patients should be routinely screened for anemia and etiological causes of anemia individually assessed to allow timely initiation of appropriate therapy.
ARID5B polymorphism confers an increased risk to acquire specific MLL rearrangements in early childhood leukemia
Thayana Conceição Barbosa
Bruno Almeida Lopes
Caroline Barbieri Blunck
Maria S. Pombo-de-Oliveira
- Background: Acute leukemia in early age (EAL) is characterized by acquired genetic alterations such as MLL rearrangements (MLL-r). The aim of this case-controlled study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IKZF1, ARID5B, and CEBPE could be related to the onset of EAL cases (<24 months-old at diagnosis).
Methods: The SNPs (IKZF1 rs11978267, ARID5B rs10821936 and rs10994982, CEBPE rs2239633) were genotyped in 265 cases [169 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 96 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)] and 505 controls by Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between SNPs of cases and controls, adjusted on skin color and/or age. The risk was determined by calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI).
Results: Children with the IKZF1 SNP had an increased risk of developing MLL-germline ALL in white children. The heterozygous/mutant genotype in ARID5B rs10994982 significantly increased the risk for MLL-germline leukemia in white and non-white children (OR 2.60, 95% CI: 1.09-6.18 and OR 3.55, 95% CI: 1.57-8.68, respectively). The heterozygous genotype in ARID5B rs10821936 increased the risk for MLL-r leukemia in both white and non-white (OR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.12-3.79 and OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.09-5.10, respectively). Furthermore, ARID5B rs10821936 conferred increased risk for MLL-MLLT3 positive cases (OR 7.10, 95% CI:1.54-32.68). Our data do not show evidence that CEBPE rs2239633 confers increased genetic susceptibility to EAL.
Conclusions: IKZF1 and CEBPE variants seem to play a minor role in genetic susceptibility to EAL, while ARID5B rs10821936 increased the risk of MLL-MLLT3. This result shows that genetic susceptibility could be associated with the differences regarding MLL breakpoints and partner genes.
Zur Erfassung und Kartierung von Tierarten in Sachsen-Anhalt
Peer Hajo Schnitter
- Die gegenwärtig in Sachsen-Anhalt laufenden bzw. geplanten Arterfassungen und Kartierungen sind in einer Tabelle zusammengestellt. Koordiniert werden diese 16 Programme durch Arbeitsgemeinschaften und Verbände, durch das Institut für Zoologie der Martin-Luther-Universität, durch die Staatliche Vogelschutzwarte Steckby, durch den Storchenhof Loburg, durch einzelne Artspezialisten sowie durch die Abteilung Naturschutz des Landesamtes für Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt / LAU.
Erfassung und Kartierung der Gefäßpflanzen und Kryptogamen in Sachsen-Anhalt
- In den vergangenen Jahrzehnten bereicherten neben vielen Einzelbeiträgen zur regionalen Verbreitung von Gefäßpflanzen- und Kryptogamenarten vor allem auch systematische Kartierungsprojekte den aktuellen Kenntnisstand über die Flora des Bundeslandes Sachsen-Anhalt.
Die vorliegenden Ergebnisse konnten nur durch die engagierte Mitarbeit ehrenamtlicher Spezialisten erzielt werden. Daran wird sich auch künftig nichts ändern, denn individuelle Verbundenheit mit der heimatlichen Landschaft. Besondere Oliskenntnis und gediegene Kenntnis der Organismen sowie langjähriger, kontinuierlicher persönlicher Einsatz lassen sich durch eine kurzzeitige professionelle Erfassung nicht ersetzen.
Zum 60jährigen Bestehen der Vogelschutzeinrichtung in Steckby - jetzt Staatliche Vogelschutzwarte Steckby -
- Nach jahrzehntelangem Wirken für Ornithologie und Vogelschutz, zunächst in Anhalt, dann in Sachsen-Anhalt und zeitweise auch darüber hinaus, wurde die Vogelschutzstation Steckby auf Beschluß der Landesregierung ab 01.04.1991 Staatliche Vogelschutzwarte des Landes Sachsen- Anhalt. Im Jahr ihres 60jährigen Bestehens wurde ihr mit der Verabschiedung des Landesnaturschutzgesetzes in Sachsen-Anhalt am 15.021992 die Aufgabe einer Fachbehörde für Naturschutz zuerkannt.
Colorectal cancer stage at diagnosis in migrants versus non-migrants (KoMigra): study protocol of a cross-sectional study in Germany
Reyn van Ewijk
Ferdinand M. Gerlach
- Background: In Germany, about 20% of the total population have a migration background. Differences exist between migrants and non-migrants in terms of health care access and utilisation. Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignant tumour in Germany, and incidence, staging and survival chances depend, amongst other things, on ethnicity and lifestyle. The current study investigates whether stage at diagnosis differs between migrants and non-migrants with colorectal cancer in an area of high migration and attempts to identify factors that can explain any differences.
Methods/Design: Data on tumour and migration status will be collected for 1,200 consecutive patients that have received a new, histologically verified diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a high migration area in Germany in the previous three months. The recruitment process is expected to take 16 months and will include gastroenterological private practices and certified centres for intestinal diseases. Descriptive and analytical analysis will be performed: the distribution of variables for migrants versus non-migrants and participants versus non-participants will be analysed using appropriate χ2-, t-, F- or Wilcoxon tests. Multivariable, logistic regression models will be performed, with the dependent variable being the dichotomized stage of the tumour (UICC stage I versus more advanced than UICC stage I). Odds ratios and associated 95%-confidence intervals will be calculated. Furthermore, ordered logistic regression models will be estimated, with the exact stage of the tumour at diagnosis as the dependent variable. Predictors used in the ordered logistic regression will be patient characteristics that are specific to migrants as well as patient characteristics that are not. Interaction models will be estimated in order to investigate whether the effects of patient characteristics on stage of tumour at the time of the initial diagnosis is different in migrants, compared to non-migrants.
Discussion: An association of migration status or other socioeconomic variables with stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer would be an important finding with respect to equal health care access among migrants. It would point to access barriers or different symptom appraisal and, in the long term, could contribute to the development of new health care concepts for migrants.
Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005056.
- Umweltministerkonferenz der Elbe-Anliegerländer am 11, Nov. 1991 in Hannover