- Wirtschaftswissenschaften (940)
Household debt and social interactions : [Version 1 März 2012]
- Debt-induced crises, including the subprime, are usually attributed exclusively to supply-side factors. We examine the role of social influences on debt culture, emanating from perceived average income of peers. Utilizing unique information from a household survey representative of the Dutch population, that circumvents the issue of defining the social circle, we consider collateralized, consumer, and informal loans. We find robust social effects on borrowing, especially among those who consider themselves poorer than their peers; and on indebtedness, suggesting a link to financial distress. We employ a number of approaches to rule out spurious associations and to handle correlated effects.
A new comparative approach to macroeconomic modeling and policy analysis
Tobias J. Cwik
Gernot J. Müller
Maik Hendrik Wolters
- In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, the state of macroeconomic modeling and the use of macroeconomic models in policy analysis has come under heavy criticism. Macroeconomists in academia and policy institutions have been blamed for relying too much on a particular class of macroeconomic models. This paper proposes a comparative approach to macroeconomic policy analysis that is open to competing modeling paradigms. Macroeconomic model comparison projects have helped produce some very influential insights such as the Taylor rule. However, they have been infrequent and costly, because they require the input of many teams of researchers and multiple meetings to obtain a limited set of comparative findings. This paper provides a new approach that enables individual researchers to conduct model comparisons easily, frequently, at low cost and on a large scale. Using this approach a model archive is built that includes many well-known empirically estimated models that may be used for quantitative analysis of monetary and fiscal stabilization policies. A computational platform is created that allows straightforward comparisons of models’ implications. Its application is illustrated by comparing different monetary and fiscal policies across selected models. Researchers can easily include new models in the data base and compare the effects of novel extensions to established benchmarks thereby fostering a comparative instead of insular approach to model development.
Going public - going private : the case of VC-backed firms
- We investigate the decisions of listed firms to go private once again. We start by revealing that while a significant number of firms which go public is VC-backed, an overproportional share of these VC-backed firms go private later on (they stay on the exchange for an average of 8.5 years). We interpret this very robust pattern such that IPOs of VC-backed firms are to a large extent a temporary rather than a permanent feature of the corporate governance of these firms. We investigate various potential hypotheses why VCs actually seem to be able to bring marginal firms to the exchange by relating the going-private decisions to various characteristics of the IPO market as well as to VC characteristics. We find strong support for the certification ability of VCs: more experienced and reputable VCs are more able to bring marginal firms to public exchanges via an IPOs. These marginal firms backed-by more reputable and experienced VCs are more likely to go private later on. Hence, our analysis suggests that IPOs backed by experienced VCs are most likely to be a temporary rather than the final stage in the life of the portfolio firm. We find no support that reputable VCs underprice their IPO-exits more implying that they have no need to leave more money on the table to take the marginal firms public.
Vom "Netz-Doktor" bis "Health 2.0" : welche Möglichkeiten das Internet chronisch Kranken bieten kann
- Jeder fünfte Deutsche ist inzwischen bereits über 65 Jahre, und der demografische Wandel
schreitet voran. Mit dem wachsenden Anteil Älterer nimmt auch die Zahl der chronisch Kranken
stetig zu. Diese Patienten haben einen besonders hohen Bedarf an aktuellen medizinischen
Informationen; das stellt neue Herausforderungen an alle Beteiligten im Gesundheitssystem.
Unter dem Stichwort "Health 2.0" untersucht der Wirtschaftsinformatiker Christoph
Rosenkranz, welche interaktiven Möglichkeiten das Internet den Betroffenen bisher schon
bietet und was es darüber hinaus in Zukunft leisten sollte.
Essays on continuous-time portfolio optimization and credit risk
Wissensmanagement in Theorie und Praxis : die Empfehlungen unserer Leser
- Vor Ihnen liegt unser zweites Open Journal of Knowledge Management der Community of Knowledge in
diesem Jahr. Werden in dem jeweils ersten Open Journal of Knowledge Management des Jahres
ausschließlich in einem Call for Papers eingereichte Beiträge publiziert, so handelt es sich bei dem zweiten
um ein Review. In dem vorliegenden Journal finden Sie daher besonders erfolgreiche Beiträge der letzten 12
Monate, eine Art "Best of" der Community of Knowledge. Maßstab ist das Nutzerverhalten, also
hauptsächlich die Seitenaufrufe, ergänzend die Verweildauer und Absprungrate. ...
Attention please – privacy in business models
André S. Deuker
Financial frictions, monetary policy and business cycles
- This dissertation consists of three essays, which study the implication of financial frictions in business cycles and monetary policy making. The first essay develops a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model to study how the instability of the banking sector can amplify and propagate business cycles. Model simulations show that in an economic down turn, in addition to credit demand contraction induced by low firm net worth, low bank capital
position can create strong credit supply contraction, and have a quantitatively significant effect on business cycle dynamics. The second essay studies the optimal Taylor-type monetary policy rules based on the model developed in the first chapter and find that with interest rate smoothing, 'leaning against the wind' can significantly dampen the procyclicality of financial distortions, and increase the welfare of the economy. The third chapter examines the role of households frugality in a financial crisis and finds that higher savings by more frugal households provide an important cushion for the fall in private investment funding.
Guanxi Capitalism in China: the role of private enterprises and networks for economic development
- This dissertation sets out to analyze the socio-economic structures behind a variety of capitalism that relies heavily on traditional (and insofar out-dated) institutions, especially networks, for its success. The specifics and advantages of business networks for small firms are well established in the literature but it rarely refers to China. It is argued that although similarities exist, Chinese networks are different to their European counterparts and therefore play a more prominent role for the Chinese economic system than networks elsewhere do. Here, personal relations are not separated into a private and a business sphere or exchanged by contractual, and in Western thinking more rational, means of doing business. Personal relations expose comparative efficiency as they are chosen as the most capable instrument for the private sector in China which makes the system as successful as we can observe today.
Therefore, this dissertation will scrutinize the specific socio-economic environment of private firms and their networks in China, thereby dissecting a new form of Capitalism that extrapolates traditional institutions for its economic success and survival instead of supplanting and overwriting traditional socio-economic structures. This challenges Weber’s distinction between rational and traditional behavior and redefines the boundaries of economy, society and culture in a new way.
Non-voting shares in France : an empirical analysis of the voting premium
Christian K. Muus
- It is the objective of this paper to determine the voting premium for French shares by comparing the values of voting and non-voting shares, and to analyze the value of the voting rights. The study uses data for 25 French companies which had both types of shares outstanding and traded on the stock exchange during the entire period from 1986 to 1996, or for some time during this interval. The average value of the voting premium is 51,35%.
The paper analyzes the reasons for this surprisingly high value by testing different hypotheses based on dividend differences, the revival) of the voting right, capitalization, shareholder structure, and the share of non-voting capital in total equity capital. The regressions show that the shareholder structure strongly influences the value of the voting premium.
A case study of the attempted takeover of Casino by Promodes shows that investors attach a much higher value to the voting right during relevant situations than at other tomes. Both companies involved had, at the time, two types of shares outstanding and listed. Furthermore the paper shows that non-voting shares have never played an important role in equity finance in France since the companies have different alternatives.
In an international cumparison, France is found to have the second highest voting premium, exceeded only by that of Italy. A probable reason is the low quality of the national accounting standards and the low level of minority shareholder protection.