Transverse momentum dependence of Bose-Einstein correlations in 200-A/GeV/c S + A collisions
J. Y. Lee
- The NA35 experiment has collected a high statistics set of momentum analyzed negative hadrons near and forward of midrapidity for central collisions of 200A GeV/c 32S+S, Cu, Ag, and Au. Using momentum space correlations to study the size of the source of particle production, the transverse source radii are found to decrease by ~40% at midrapidity and ~20% at forward rapidity while the longitudinal radius RL is found to decrease by ~50% as pT increases over the interval 50<pT<600 MeV/c. Calculations using a microscopic phase space approach (relativistic quantum molecular dynamics) reproduce the observed trends of the data. PACS: 25.75.+r
Chemical equilibrium study in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies
- We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the strangeness production as a function of centre of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. We have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation. We show that, in this energy range, the use of hadron yields at midrapidity instead of in full phase space artificially enhances strangeness production and could lead to incorrect conclusions as far as the occurrence of full chemical equilibrium is concerned. In addition to the basic model with an extra strange quark non-equilibrium parameter, we have tested three more schemes: a two-component model superimposing hadrons coming out of single nucleon-nucleon interactions to those emerging from large fireballs at equilibrium, a model with local strangeness neutrality and a model with strange and light quark non-equilibrium parameters. The behaviour of the source parameters as a function of colliding system and collision energy is studied. The description of strangeness production entails a non-monotonic energy dependence of strangeness saturation parameter gamma_S with a maximum around 30A GeV. We also present predictions of the production rates of still unmeasured hadrons including the newly discovered Theta^+(1540) pentaquark baryon.
Energy and centrality dependence of deuteron and proton production in Pb+Pb collisions at relativistic energies
Michael Kosta Mitrovski
Alexander Albert Wetzler
- The transverse mass mt distributions for deuterons and protons are measured in Pb+Pb reactions near midrapidity and in the range 0<mt–m<1.0 (1.5) GeV/c2 for minimum bias collisions at 158A GeV and for central collisions at 40 and 80 A GeV beam energies. The rapidity density dn/dy, inverse slope parameter T and mean transverse mass <mt> derived from mt distributions as well as the coalescence parameter B2 are studied as a function of the incident energy and the collision centrality. The deuteron mt spectra are significantly harder than those of protons, especially in central collisions. The coalescence factor B2 shows three systematic trends. First, it decreases strongly with increasing centrality reflecting an enlargement of the deuteron coalescence volume in central Pb+Pb collisions. Second, it increases with mt. Finally, B2 shows an increase with decreasing incident beam energy even within the SPS energy range. The results are discussed and compared to the predictions of models that include the collective expansion of the source created in Pb+Pb collisions.
Compression effects in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions
J. W. Harris
K. L. Wolf
H. G. Pugh
L. S. Schroeder
R. E. Renfordt
M. E. Ortiz
- The negative-pion multiplicity is measured for central collisions of 40Ar with KCl at eight energies from 0.36 to 1.8 GeV/nucleon and for 4He on KCl and 40Ar on BaI2 at 977 and 772 MeV/nucleon, respectively. A systematic discrepancy with a cascade-model calculation which fits proton- and pion-nucleus cross sections but omits potential-energy effects is used to derive the energy going into bulk compression of the system. A value of the incompressibility constant of K=240 MeV is extracted in a parabolic form of the nuclear-matter equation of state.
Parity of bound dipole states in 208Pb
U. E. P. Berg
R. K. M. Schneider
- The parities of eleven J=1 levels in 208Pb were determined by nuclear resonance fluorescence scattering of linearly polarized photons. A new 1+ level at Ex=5.846 MeV with Gamma 02 / Gamma =1.2±0.4 eV was found. This level can probably be identified with the theoretically predicted isoscalar 1+ state in 208Pb. All other bound dipole states below 7 MeV with Gamma 02 / Gamma >1.5 eV have negative parity. The 1- assignment to the 4.842-MeV level is of special significance because of previous conflicting results about its parity.
16O( gamma ,p) 15N reaction with linearly polarized photons
R. K. M. Schneider
U. E. P. Berg
- The 16O ( gamma ,p0) reaction has been studied with linearly polarized bremsstrahlung photons in and below the giant E1 resonance. The parity of the absorbed radiation was determined from the observed azimuthal asymmetry of the emitted protons. Combined with unpolarized measurements the polarized results determine the proton decay amplitudes of the M1 resonance at Ex=16.2 MeV in 16O. The shape of the unpolarized 16O ( gamma ,p3) angular distribution in the giant E1 resonance was derived from the measured analyzing power. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 16O( gamma ,p), E=15-25 MeV; measured analyzing power theta =90° linearly polarized bremsstrahlung; 16O dipole levels deduced pi ; 16.2 MeV 1+ resonance deduced p0 decay amplitudes; 16O GEDR deduced p3 angular distribution.
11 262 keV 1+ state in 20Ne
U. E. P. Berg
- The excitation energy of the lowest 1+, T=1 state in 20Ne, which is important for parity nonconservation studies, has been determined in a photon scattering experiment to be 11 262.3 ± 1.9 keV. Values for the gamma -ray branching of this level to the ground state and to the first 2+ level in 20Ne are 84 ± 5% and 16 ± 5%, respectively. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 20Ne( gamma , gamma ), E gamma <18 MeV, bremsstrahlung; measured E gamma , gamma branching. Ne natural targets.
Emission patterns in central and peripheral relativistic heavy-ion collisions
H. H. Gutbrod
W. G. Meyer
A. M. Poskanzer
C. H. King
Nguyen Van Sen
Gary D. Westfall
- Proton emission in relativistic nuclear collisions is examined for events of low and high multiplicity, corresponding to large and small impact parameters. Peripheral reactions exhibit distributions of protons in agreement with spectator-participant decay modes. Central collisions of equal-size nuclei are dominated by the formation and decay of a fireball system. Central collisions of light projectiles with heavy targets exhibit an enhancement in sideward emission which is predicted by recent hydrodynamical calculations.
Contribution of alpha cluster exchange to elastic and inelastic 16O + 20Ne scattering
D. L. Hendrie
C. F. Maguire
W. F. W. Schneider
D. K. Scott
- Angular distributions for elastic and inelastic transitions in 20Ne + 16O scattering have been measured at E(20Ne)=50 MeV. For the 0+, 2+, and 4+ members of the 20Ne ground-state rotational band, the angular distributions exhibit pronounced backward peaking characteristic of an alpha -cluster exchange mechanism. The analysis of the ground-state transition in the first-order elastic transfer model yields no satisfactory fit although microscopic cluster form factors and full recoil corrections are employed. A coupled channels calculation for the 0+, 2+, and 4+ transitions reveals very strong coupling effects, indicating that the coherent superposition of first-order optical model and distorted-wave Born-approximation amplitudes may not be an adequate model for these reactions. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 16O(20Ne, 16O) and 16O(20Ne, 20Ne), elastic and inelastic transfer; E=50MeV; measured sigma (Ef , theta ); optical model + DWBA, and CCBA analyses.
Excitation of Rotational Bands in 40Ca Observed in the Reaction 36Ar(16O, 12C)
- Levels strongly populated in the reaction 36Ar(16O, 12C)40Ca are compared with predictions for the lowest (oblate) 4p-4h rotational band in 40Ca.