Reformbedarf im Recht der Vormundschaft/Pflegschaft
Functional genomic and advanced genetic studies reveal novel insights into the metabolism, regulation, and biology of Haloferax volcanii
- The genome sequence of Haloferax volcanii is available and several comparative genomic in silico studies were performed that yielded novel insight for example into protein export, RNA modifications, small non-coding RNAs, and ubiquitin-like Small Archaeal Modifier Proteins. The full range of functional genomic methods has been established and results from transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies are discussed. Notably, Hfx. volcanii is together with Halobacterium salinarum the only prokaryotic species for which a translatome analysis has been performed. The results revealed that the fraction of translationally-regulated genes in haloarchaea is as high as in eukaryotes. A highly efficient genetic system has been established that enables the application of libraries as well as the parallel generation of genomic deletion mutants. Facile mutant generation is complemented by the possibility to culture Hfx. volcanii in microtiter plates, allowing the phenotyping of mutant collections. Genetic approaches are currently used to study diverse biological questions–from replication to posttranslational modification—and selected results are discussed. Taken together, the wealth of functional genomic and genetic tools make Hfx. volcanii a bona fide archaeal model species, which has enabled the generation of important results in recent years and will most likely generate further breakthroughs in the future.
Academic faculty governance and recruitment decisions
- We analyze the implications of the governance structure in academic faculties for their recruitment decisions when competing for new researchers. The value to individual members through social interaction within the faculty depends on the average status of their fellow members. In recruitment decisions, incumbent members trade off the effect of entry on average faculty status against alternative uses of the recruitment budget if no entry takes place. We show that the best candidates join the best faculties but that they receive lower wages than some lesser ranking candidates. We also study the allocation of surplus created by the entry of a new faculty member and show that faculties with symmetric status distributions maximize their joint surplus under majority voting.
Influence of ground-state structure and Mg2+ binding on folding kinetics of the guanine-sensing riboswitch aptamer domain
- Riboswitch RNAs fold into complex tertiary structures upon binding to their cognate ligand. Ligand recognition is accomplished by key residues in the binding pocket. In addition, it often crucially depends on the stability of peripheral structural elements. The ligand-bound complex of the guanine-sensing riboswitch from Bacillus subtilis, for example, is stabilized by extensive interactions between apical loop regions of the aptamer domain. Previously, we have shown that destabilization of this tertiary loop–loop interaction abrogates ligand binding of the G37A/C61U-mutant aptamer domain (Gswloop) in the absence of Mg2+. However, if Mg2+ is available, ligand-binding capability is restored by a population shift of the ground-state RNA ensemble toward RNA conformations with pre-formed loop–loop interactions. Here, we characterize the striking influence of long-range tertiary structure on RNA folding kinetics and on ligand-bound complex structure, both by X-ray crystallography and time-resolved NMR. The X-ray structure of the ligand-bound complex reveals that the global architecture is almost identical to the wild-type aptamer domain. The population of ligand-binding competent conformations in the ground-state ensemble of Gswloop is tunable through variation of the Mg2+ concentration. We quantitatively describe the influence of distinct Mg2+ concentrations on ligand-induced folding trajectories both by equilibrium and time-resolved NMR spectroscopy at single-residue resolution.
Interaction of spin and vibrations in transport through single-molecule magnets
Maarten R. Wegewijs
- We study electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) and the interplay of its anisotropic spin with quantized vibrational distortions of the molecule. Based on numerical renormalization group calculations we show that, despite the longitudinal anisotropy barrier and small transverse anisotropy, vibrational fluctuations can induce quantum spin-tunneling (QST) and a QST-Kondo effect. The interplay of spin scattering, QST and molecular vibrations can strongly enhance the Kondo effect and induce an anomalous magnetic field dependence of vibrational Kondo side-bands.
(Acetonitrile-κN)chloridobis[2-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl-κ2 C 1,N]iridium(III)
Jan W. Bats
- The IrIII atom of the title compound, [Ir(C11H8N)2Cl(CH3CN)], displays a distorted octahedral coordination. The pyridyl groups are in trans positions [N—Ir—N = 173.07 (10)°], while the phenyl groups are trans with respect to the acetonitrile and chloride groups [C—Ir—N = 178.13 (11) and C—Ir—Cl = 176.22 (9)°]. The pyridylphenyl groups only show a small deviation from planarity, with the dihedral angle between the planes of the two six-membered rings in each pyridylphenyl group being 5.6 (2) and 5.8 (1)°. The crystal packing shows intermolecular C—H[cdots, three dots, centered]Cl, C—H[cdots, three dots, centered]π(acetonitrile) and C—H[cdots, three dots, centered]π(pyridylphenyl) contacts.
Emergent inert adjoint scalar field in SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics due to coarse-grained topological fluctuation
- We compute the phase and the modulus of an energy- and pressure-free, composite, adjoint, and
inert field φ in an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory at large temperatures. This field is physically relevant in describing part of the ground-state structure and the quasiparticle masses of excitations. The field φ possesses nontrivial S1-winding on the group manifold S3. Even at asymptotically high temperatures, where the theory reaches its Stefan-Boltzmann limit, the field φ, though strongly power suppressed, is conceptually relevant: its presence resolves the infrared problem of thermal perturbation theory.
Bedingungen und Auswirkungen regionaler Identität in Baden-Württemberg : "Schaffe, spare, Häusle bauen" versus "Über Baden lacht die Sonne, über Schwaben die ganze Welt"?
The chloroplast molecular machine for protein translocation : the function of a single complex and lipid effect
Rajae El Kehal
- Protein translocation across the chloroplast membrane is mediated by molecular machinery composed of protein complexes termed the TOC/TIC (the outer/inner envelope chloroplasts translocases). This translocation process is regulated by metabolic energy in form of GTP and ATP and is influenced by the lipid composition of the membrane. The ability to study the function of a single complex “TOC” in vitro using purified protein or purified chloroplast outer envelope vesicles has been instrumental for our understanding of the mechanism underlying this process.
Indeed, the TOC complex has been purified by previously established procedures. However its functional and structural analyses are impaired by the limited yield of purified protein. Therefore, protocols for native TOC complex purification are described here. The complex isolation is achieved by direct biochemical treatment of biological membrane hosting this complex or by tandem affinity purification of modified protein complex components from generated transgenic plants.
Furthermore, in this thesis, radioactive based in vitro import assays are described, namely those that allow monitoring translocation activity across the outer envelope of chloroplast. Based on the analysis of knock-out plants and isolated complexes it was previously suggested that lipid dependence of protein translocation might exist. Thus, the question was raised whether the lipid composition of the membrane has a direct influence on the behavior and functionality of the TOC translocon, or whether additional components of the chloroplast membrane account for the observed effect in vivo. To answer this question, a technique for vesicle fusion was developed. The principal aim was to explore the effect of an exchange of the lipid environment surrounding the complex translocon. This method helped to demonstrate that the SQDG and PI act stimulatory on the translocation across the outer envelope of chloroplast, whereas DGDG exhibits an inhibitory effect on TOC complex functionality.
The sponges of the Chinese Yellow Sea
- Sponges are one of the major components of benthic communities and are considered to be a
key role organism in marine ecosystems. In addition to their importance in terms of
biodiversity, sponges are becoming increasingly attractive to the industry, as they themselves
or associated symbionts, produce various kinds of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical
properties. Some of them have already been clinically applied.
The taxonomic characters of Porifera are limited to only a few morphological and
histological characters. In addition, sponges of the same species often show a wide
morphological variability, whereas the latter depends on different ecological parameters such
as water depth and current conditions. Thus, the taxonomic classification of sponges often
becomes a scientific challenge.
The fauna of the Yellow Sea rates among the least studied worldwide. At the same time,
according to the UN Atlas of the Ocean, the Yellow Sea is one of the most intensively
exploited marine areas in the world. This is not least due to the dense human population living
in the entire catchment area of the Yellow Sea region. In order to compile medium- and longterm
conclusions about the anthropogenic impact on biota of the Yellow Sea, the knowledge
of species and their distribution is of crucial importance, as these data form the baseline for all
future conservation efforts.
Until now the sponge fauna of the Chinese Yellow Sea is insufficiently investigated.
Thus, there is only one publication on sponges from this region that has been released
hitherto. This paper is dealing with only a view species. However, there is no reference
concerning the present location of the voucher material, on which this publication is based on.
Consequently, no scientific collection on Porifera from the Chinese part of the Yellow Sea
exists to date.
In order to compile a documentation of the recent sponge community of the Chinese
Yellow Sea, 12 study sites along the coast of the Liaoning Peninsula, China, Northeast
Yellow Sea, were investigated with focus on sponge distribution. The corresponding habitats
were characterized in regard to their topographical features, abiotic parameters, and common
composition of benthic megafaunal and macroalgal assemblages.
Due to the lack of comparable studies, a comprehensive literature research on sponges of the
shallow Northwest Pacific Ocean was required. As a result the first compilation of
publications is presented, dealing with sponges from shallow depths of the northwestern
In the course of this study, 31 sponge species in total were recorded, which are scientifically
processed. With the exception of four all specimens were determined to species- level.
Twelve out of the total number of species are new to science and are described and classified
according to the recent taxonomic system of the phylum Porifera.
The results of this study indicate considerable differences in species composition between
investigated sites. It is shown that physical factors (particularly current regime, sedimentation,
seasonally related variations in temperatures), as well the availability of suitable substrates are
directly related to the diversity and abundance of investigated sponge communities. In this
context possible adaptation strategies of the corresponding sponges were discussed in detail.
Two sponge species, Clathria (Clathria) asodes and Antho (Acarnia) lithophoenix, formerly
known exclusively from the northeastern Pacific Ocean, are now recorded from the Northwest
Pacific Ocean for the first time. Furthermore, Penares hongdoensis, Clathria (Clathria)
hongdoensis and Celtodoryx girardae were synonymized with Penares cortius, Clathria
(Clathria) acanthostyli, and Celtodoryx ciocalyptoides respectively. Moreover, the occurrence
of eight sponge species, which were known from previous records from the Yellow Sea, could
As a result of this study the Asian origin of a sponge species that is invasive to the French and
Dutch coasts of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean since the 1990s could be established. Moreover,
it is demonstrated that Celtodoryx girardae from the northeastern Atlantic is in fact
conspecific with Cornulum ciocalyptoides described by Burton (1935) from the Posiet Bay,
Sea of Japan. Apart from taxonomic remarks, variations between populations from both
oceans are examined and discussed thoroughly in regard to possible ecological implications.
The community of documented sponges shows overlapping with the one from the Sea of
Japan. According to the results it is assumed that the endemic degree of the sponges from the
Chinese Yellow Sea is rather low to moderate.
The material obtained in the course of this study was integrated in the collection of the
Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Sammlungen. Therefore, it is the first scientific
collection of sponges from the Chinese Yellow Sea that can be consulted as a basis for all
further studies on sponges of this region.
The present study is the only investigation of sponges from Dalian and adjacent waters before
the spill occurred in the Dalian harbour in July 2010. Therefore, it provides an essential
baseline needed to assess the impact of the oil spill on benthic communities.