A New Genus and Species of North American Robsonomyiini (Diptera: Sciaroidea: Keroplatidae: Macrocerinae) from the Florida Keys
Edward I. Coher
- A second genus and species of Nearctic keroplatid fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea: Keroplatidae: Macrocerinae) attributed to the tribe Robsonomyiini is described: Calusamyia hribari Coher, n. gen., n. sp.. The relationship of this fly from the Florida Keys with Asian genera and species and the single Nearctic described form of the robsonomyiines is briefly discussed.
Two new Neotropical species of Telephanus Erichson near T. serratus Nevermann (Coleoptera: Silvanidae)
Michael C. Thomas
- The Mesoamerican species of Telephanus distinguished by the presence eight lateral pronotal spines
and long temples are reviewed. The group includes T. serratus Nevermann and two previously undescribed species
that are described herein: T. bellus Thomas, new species, from Costa Rica, and the flightless T. monstrosus
Thomas, new species, from Mexico.
The Milliped order Glomeridesmida (Diplopoda: Pentazonia: Limacomorpha) in Oceania, the East Indies, and southeastern Asia; first records from Palau, the Philippines, Vanuatu, New Britain, the Island of New Guinea, Cambodia, Thailand, and Borneo and Sulawesi, Indonesia
Rowland M. Shelley
- The taxonomically neglected milliped order Glomeridesmida and family Glomeridesmidae (infraclass
Pentazonia, superorder Limacomorpha) inhabit 21, rather than seven, regions of the world, being newly recorded
from Thailand; Cambodia; the Republics of Palau, the Philippines, and Vanuatu; New Britain, Bismarck Archipelago;
the Island of New Guinea (both West Papua [formerly Irian Jaya], Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea);
and Sulawesi and Borneo, Indonesia. Occurrence in Fiji is confirmed with two additional samples, and discovery is
predicted in southern China, Myanmar, and perhaps Madagascar. Coupled with published localities, these records
suggest subcontinuous (super)ordinal and familial ranges extending some 12,480 km (7,800 mi) southeastward from
northwestern Thailand to Fiji. Though infrequently encountered, the taxa may actually be diverse and abundant
within this area, which encompasses all of the Indochina and Malay peninsulas, the Philippines, Palau, the Island
of Borneo and Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon and Santa Cruz Islands, Vanuatu, and Fiji; it excludes
Taiwan, Australia, New Caledonia, and the Loyalty Islands. The paucity of preserved individuals probably results
from their dark pigmentations and minute sizes, adults being <6.5 mm long; Berlese extractions and sieved litter
techniques are recommended over hand collecting. Glomeridesmida are much more continuous, widespread, and
abundant in the “east” than previously believed and clearly do not comprise a minor, insignificant taxon. The first
glomeridesmidan photos are published.
Two new species of Chrysina Kirby (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae) from Mexico
José Monzón Sierra
Jesús García Morales
- Two new species of Chrysina Kirby (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae) are described: Chrysina blackalleri from the State of Oaxaca and Chrysina donthomasi from the state of Nuevo León in Mexico.
Distribution of the American milliped genus Boraria Chamberlin, 1943: Introductions of B. stricta (Brölemann, 1896) in New York and B. infesta (Chamberlin, 1918) in Connecticut; indigenous occurrence of B. profuga (Causey, 1955) in Louisiana (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae).
Rowland M. Shelley
Chris T. McAllister
Christopher M. Nagy
Mark E. Weckel
Roderick G. Christie
- The southern Appalachian millipeds Boraria stricta (Brölemann, 1896) and B. infesta (Chamberlin,
1918) (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae) have become established in Westchester Co., New York, and
Hartford Co., Connecticut, respectively. Only three individuals are available for the latter, but B. stricta has
established a reproducing population in southern New York state. This species is also recorded from Bland Co.,
Virginia, in the Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province. Boraria profuga (Causey, 1955) comprises two allopatric
populations, one in Montgomery Co., Arkansas, and the other in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana. Distributional records
and gonopod drawings are presented for these species plus B. deturkiana (Causey, 1942).
Three new species of Phylocentropus Banks (Trichoptera: Dipseudopsidae) from Vietnam
Tatiana I. Arefina-Armitage
Brian J. Armitage
- Of the 9 known species of Phylocentropus Banks (Trichoptera: Dipseudopsidae), 5 are found in
eastern North America, 1 in Japan, and 3 in Southeast Asia. Three new species of this genus: Ph. tohoku, Ph.
ngoclinh, and Ph. anas from Vietnam are described and illustrated herein. Previously, only 1 species, Ph.
vietnamellus Mey 1995, was known from this country.
New taxa and combinations in Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)
Eugenio H. Nearns
Ian P. Swift
- Monneoncideres, a new genus of Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) is
described and illustrated. Six new species of Onciderini are also described and illustrated: Hesycha tavakiliani
from Brazil; Lesbates milleri from Venezuela; Monneoncideres cristata from Ecuador and Peru; Neodillonia waltersi
from Ecuador; Tibiosioma martinsi from Ecuador; and Trestonia wappesi from Panama. Keys to the known species
of Lesbates Dillon and Dillon, 1945 and Tibiosioma Martins and Galilleo, 1990 are provided. The genus
Ophthalmocydrus Aurivillius, 1925 (Onciderini) is transferred to Pteropliini (Lamiinae); and Xylomimus Bates,
1865 (Apomecynini) is transferred to Onciderini. The following new synonymies are proposed: Kuauna Martins
and Galileo, 2009 = Opthalmocydrus Aurivillius, 1925; Kuauna schmidi Martins and Galileo, 2009 = Ophthalmocydrus
semiorbifer Aurivillius, 1925; Paraplerodia Martins and Galileo, 2010 = Tibiosioma Martins and Galileo, 2007;
Paraplerodia acarinata Martins and Galileo, 2010 = Tibiosioma maculosa Martins and Galileo, 2007; and
Ischiomaeocles Franz, 1954 = Lochmaeocles Bates, 1880. The following new combination is proposed: Lochmaeocles
salvadorensis (Franz, 1954), transferred from Ischiomaeocles. The following 37 new country records are reported:
Alexera barii (Jekel, 1861) (Bolivia, Ecuador); Bacuris sexvittatus (Bates, 1865) (Panama); Cacostola brasiliensis
Thomson, 1868 (Argentina); Cherentes niveilateris (Thomson, 1868) (French Guiana); Cicatrodea monima Dillon
and Dillon, 1946 (Ecuador); Clavidesmus metallicus (Thomson, 1868) (Ecuador, Peru); Cydros leucurus Pascoe, 1866
(Brazil); Ecthoea quadricornis (Olivier, 1792) (Ecuador); Eudesmus grisescens Audinet-Serville, 1835 (Ecuador,
Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela); Euthima variegata (Aurivillius, 1921) (Ecuador); Hesychotypa heraldica (Bates,
1872) (Belize, Guatemala); Hesychotypa punctata Martins, 1979 (Peru); Lochmaeocles basalis Dillon and Dillon,
1946 (Ecuador, Trinidad and Tobago); Lochmaeocles zonatus Dillon and Dillon, 1946 (Venezuela); Lydipta conspersa
(Aurivillius, 1922) (Peru); Neocherentes dilloniorum Tippmann, 1960 (Brazil); Neolampedusa obliquator (Fabricius,
1801) (Ecuador); Peritrox perbra Dillon and Dillon, 1945 (Ecuador); Priscatoides tatila Dillon and Dillon, 1945
(Bolivia); Strioderes peruanus Giorgi, 2001 (Brazil); Trachysomus apipunga Martins and Galileo, 2008 (Peru);
Trachysomus camelus Buquet, 1852 (Venezuela); Trachysomus peregrinus Thomson, 1858 (Ecuador); Trachysomus
thomsoni Aurivillius, 1923 (Venezuela); Trestoncideres laterialba Martins and Galileo, 1990 (Brazil); Trestonia
exotica Galileo and Martins, 1990 (Ecuador); Trestonia fulgurata Buquet, 1859 (Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago);
Tritania dilloni Chalumeau, 1990 (Venezuela); Tulcus paganus (Pascoe, 1859) (Ecuador); Xylomimus baculus Bates,
1865 (French Guiana). Theobroma cacao Linnaeus (Sterculiaceae) is recorded as a new host plant record for Eudesmus
Taxonomy, identification, and phylogeny of the African and Madagascan species of the tiger beetle genus Chaetodera Jeannel 1946 (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)
Jonathan R. Mawdsley
- The taxonomy of the African and Madagascan species of the tiger beetle genus Chaetodera Jeannel 1946
(Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) is reviewed based on studies of primary types and additional museum specimens. Six
species are recognized: C. andriana (Alluaud 1900), C. antatsima (Alluaud 1902), C. blanchardi (Fairmaire 1882),
C. maheva (Künckel d’Herculais 1887), C. perrieri (Fairmaire 1897), and C. regalis (Dejean 1831). All species are
illustrated, including color variants, and a key to species and maps of species distributions are provided. A
hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships is proposed for the nine worldwide species of the genus Chaetodera based
on computerized parsimony analysis of a matrix containing data on 16 adult morphological characteristics.
Noteworthy Records of Hispines from Belize (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
R. F. C. Naczi
Charles L. Staines
- Cephaloleia consanguinea Baly, Cephaloleia fulvolimbata Baly, Cephaloleia ruficollis Baly, Chalepus
amabilis Baly, Chalepus brevicornis (Baly), Chalepus pici Descarpentries and Villiers, Microrhopala erebus (Newman),
Octhispa bimaculata Uhmann, Octotoma championi Baly, Pseudispa tuberculata Staines, Sceloenopla erudita (Baly),
Stenispa guatemalensis Uhmann, Sumitrosis gestroi (Weise), and Sumitrosis terminatus (Baly) (Coleoptera:
Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) are new country records of hispine chrysomelids for Belize, based on collections cited
herein. These collections also document new host records for Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Chamaedorea
tepejilote Liebm., Arecaceae), Cephaloleia consanguinea (Heliconia bourgaeana Petersen, H. collinsiana Griggs, H.
latispatha Benth., H. wagneriana Petersen; Heliconiaceae), and Cephaloleia perplexa Baly (Heliconia bourgaeana,
H. latispatha; Heliconiaceae).
Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation
Thomas C. Brachert
Dieter F. Mertz
- Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system.
Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation.
Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (∼1.11) than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O∼0.4), which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (∼0.36), which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granite and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O∼0.22). Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation.
Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed the observed element distribution can only be explained by recrystallization of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. Perhaps the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enriched in Cl which results in the formation of MgO, and Na2O-rich, but Cl-poor bioapatite near the EDJ and MgO- and Na2O-poor, but Cl-rich bioapatite at the outer enamel rim.
The linkage between lake and river water composition, bioavailability of elements for plants, animal nutrition and tooth formation is complex and multifaceted. The quality and limits of the MgO/Na2O and other proxies have to be established with systematic investigations relating chemical distribution patterns to sedimentary environment and to growth structures developing as secretion and maturation proceed during tooth formation.