Crustacea caspia : contributions to the knowledge of the carcinological fauna of the Caspian Sea ; Part III. Amphipoda, 1-st article: Gammaridae (part)
Georg Ossian Sars
Altersforschung – eine junge Wissenschaft mit Zukunft? : Gisela Zenz sieht Profilierungschancen für die Universität
- Im Jahre 2030 werden die über 60-Jährigen die Mehrheit der deutschen Bevölkerung stellen. Während die Lebenserwartung stetig steigt, werden immer weniger Kinder geboren – Deutschland überaltert und schrumpft pro Jahr um etwa 200000 Einwohner. »Das Alter ist in einer sehr interessanten Weise jung«, hat Paul Baltes, Direktor des Max-Planck-Instituts für Bildungsforschung und einer der ersten deutschen Altersforscher, das Phänomen umschrieben, dass die Menschen noch nie so alt wie heute geworden sind: Ein heute 70-Jähriger ist beispielsweise im Vergleich zu den Alten vor 25 Jahren etwa fünf Jahre »jünger«, was seine körperliche und mentale Leistungsfähigkeit betrifft (siehe auch Heinz D. Osiewacz: »Gesund altern, aber wie? Molekulare Grundlagen biologischer Alterungsprozesse «, Seite 47 ff). Es gibt also nicht mehr nur »alte Alte«, die pflegebedürftig und dement sind, sondern auch solche, die sich geistig und körperlich fit fühlen. Noch haben die fachlich vielfältigen Facetten des Alters in der Forschung keine Konjunktur. Doch eine Trendwende zeichnet sich ab. Die Rechtswissenschaftlerin und Psychoanalytikerin Prof.Dr. Gisela Zenz will mit dem Forum »Alterswissenschaften und Alterspolitik« an der Universität Frankfurt die Kompetenzen aus den unterschiedlichen Fachgebieten zusammenführen. Was dahinter steckt, erläutert die Wissenschaftlerin in einem Gespräch mit Ulrike Jaspers.
Die Gifte der Kegelschnecken : Leitsubstanzen für neue Medikamente
Cumulative occupational lumbar load and lumbar disc disease : results of a German multi-center case-control study (EPILIFT)
- Background The to date evidence for a dose-response relationship between physical workload and the development of lumbar disc diseases is limited. We therefore investigated the possible etiologic relevance of cumulative occupational lumbar load to lumbar disc diseases in a multi-center case-control study. Methods In four study regions in Germany (Frankfurt/Main, Freiburg, Halle/Saale, Regensburg), patients seeking medical care for pain associated with clinically and radiologically verified lumbar disc herniation (286 males, 278 females) or symptomatic lumbar disc narrowing (145 males, 206 females) were prospectively recruited. Population control subjects (453 males and 448 females) were drawn from the regional population registers. Cases and control subjects were between 25 and 70 years of age. In a structured personal interview, a complete occupational history was elicited to identify subjects with certain minimum workloads. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary surveys performed by technical experts, the situational lumbar load represented by the compressive force at the lumbosacral disc was determined via biomechanical model calculations for any working situation with object handling and load-intensive postures during the total working life. For this analysis, all manual handling of objects of about 5 kilograms or more and postures with trunk inclination of 20 degrees or more are included in the calculation of cumulative lumbar load. Confounder selection was based on biologic plausibility and on the change-in-estimate criterion. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated separately for men and women using unconditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, region, and unemployment as major life event (in males) or psychosocial strain at work (in females), respectively. To further elucidate the contribution of past physical workload to the development of lumbar disc diseases, we performed lag-time analyses. Results We found a positive dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational lumbar load and lumbar disc herniation as well as lumbar disc narrowing among men and women. Even past lumbar load seems to contribute to the risk of lumbar disc disease. Conclusions According to our study, cumulative physical workload is related to lumbar disc diseases among men and women.
Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care : a nationwide survey at German medical schools
Stefan K. Beckers
Michael P. Müller
- Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n=21); problem-based learning at 29% (n=10), e-learning at 3% (n=1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n=4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n=31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n=11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n=15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n=10) or oral examinations (17%, n=6). Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education in emergency medical care.
Conditional associative learning examined in a paralyzed patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using brain-computer interface technology
Iver H. Iversen
- Background Brain-computer interface methodology based on self-regulation of slow-cortical potentials (SCPs) of the EEG (electroencephalogram) was used to assess conditional associative learning in one severely paralyzed, late-stage ALS patient. After having been taught arbitrary stimulus relations, he was evaluated for formation of equivalence classes among the trained stimuli. Methods A monitor presented visual information in two targets. The method of teaching was matching to sample. Three types of stimuli were presented: signs (A), colored disks (B), and geometrical shapes (C). The sample was one type, and the choice was between two stimuli from another type. The patient used his SCP to steer a cursor to one of the targets. A smiley was presented as a reward when he hit the correct target. The patient was taught A-B and B-C (sample – comparison) matching with three stimuli of each type. Tests for stimulus equivalence involved the untaught B-A, C-B, A-C, and C-A relations. An additional test was discrimination between all three stimuli of one equivalence class presented together versus three unrelated stimuli. The patient also had sessions with identity matching using the same stimuli. Results The patient showed high accuracy, close to 100%, on identity matching and could therefore discriminate the stimuli and control the cursor correctly. Acquisition of A-B matching took 11 sessions (of 70 trials each) and had to be broken into simpler units before he could learn it. Acquisition of B-C matching took two sessions. The patient passed all equivalence class tests at 90% or higher. Conclusion The patient may have had a deficit in acquisition of the first conditional association of signs and colored disks. In contrast, the patient showed clear evidence that A-B and B-C training had resulted in formation of equivalence classes. The brain-computer interface technology combined with the matching to sample method is a useful way to assess various cognitive abilities of severely paralyzed patients, who are without reliable motor control.
Contributio prima ad cognitionem cecidologiae Braziliae
João da Silva Tavares
Pre-existence and light
Ice-cored moraines in Scandinavia
Gesund altern, aber wie? : Molekulare Grundlagen biologischer Alterungsprozesse
Heinz D. Osiewacz