- A New Type of Na+-Driven ATP Synthase Membrane Rotor with a Two-Carboxylate Ion-Coupling Motif (2013)
- Abstract: The anaerobic bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum uses glutamate decarboxylation to generate a transmembrane gradient of Na+. Here, we demonstrate that this ion-motive force is directly coupled to ATP synthesis, via an F1Fo-ATP synthase with a novel Na+ recognition motif, shared by other human pathogens. Molecular modeling and free-energy simulations of the rotary element of the enzyme, the c-ring, indicate Na+ specificity in physiological settings. Consistently, activity measurements showed Na+ stimulation of the enzyme, either membrane-embedded or isolated, and ATP synthesis was sensitive to the Na+ ionophore monensin. Furthermore, Na+ has a protective effect against inhibitors targeting the ion-binding sites, both in the complete ATP synthase and the isolated c-ring. Definitive evidence of Na+ coupling is provided by two identical crystal structures of the c11 ring, solved by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 and 2.6 Å resolution, at pH 5.3 and 8.7, respectively. Na+ ions occupy all binding sites, each coordinated by four amino acids and a water molecule. Intriguingly, two carboxylates instead of one mediate ion binding. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that this motif implies that a proton is concurrently bound to all sites, although Na+ alone drives the rotary mechanism. The structure thus reveals a new mode of ion coupling in ATP synthases and provides a basis for drug-design efforts against this opportunistic pathogen. Author Summary: Essential cellular processes such as biosynthesis, transport, and motility are sustained by the energy released in the hydrolysis of ATP, the universal energy carrier in living cells. Most ATP in the cell is produced by a membrane-bound enzyme, the ATP synthase, through a rotary mechanism that is coupled to the translocation of ions across the membrane. The majority of ATP synthases are energized by transmembrane electrochemical gradients of protons (proton-motive force), but a number of organisms, including some important human pathogens, use gradients of sodium ions instead (sodium-motive force). The ion specificity of ATP synthases is determined by a membrane-embedded sub-complex, the c-ring, which is the smallest known biological rotor. The functional mechanism of the rotor ring and its variations among different organisms are of wide interest, because of this enzyme's impact on metabolism and disease, and because of its potential for nanotechnology applications. Here, we characterize a previously unrecognized type of Na+-driven ATP synthase from the opportunistic human pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum, which is implicated in periodontal diseases. We analyzed this ATP synthase and its rotor ring through a multi-disciplinary approach, combining cell-growth and biochemical assays, X-ray crystallography and computer-simulation methods. Two crystal structures of the membrane rotor were solved, at low and high pH, revealing an atypical ion-recognition motif mediated by two carboxylate side-chains. This motif is shared by other human pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Streptococcus pneumonia, whose ATP synthases are targets of novel antibiotic drugs. The implications of this ion-recognition mode on the mechanism of the ATP synthase and the cellular bioenergetics of F. nucleatum were thus examined. Our results provide the basis for future pharmacological efforts against this important pathogen.
- Structural and functional analyses of PAS domain interactions of the clock proteins Drosophila PERIOD and mouse PERIOD2 (2009)
- PERIOD proteins are central components of the Drosophila and mammalian circadian clocks. The crystal structure of a Drosophila PERIOD (dPER) fragment comprising two PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains (PAS-A and PAS-B) and two additional C-terminal alpha-helices (alphaE and alphaF) has revealed a homodimer mediated by intermolecular interactions of PAS-A with tryptophane 482 in PAS-B and helix alphaF. Here we present the crystal structure of a monomeric PAS domain fragment of dPER lacking the alphaF helix. Moreover, we have solved the crystal structure of a PAS domain fragment of the mouse PERIOD homologue mPER2. The mPER2 structure shows a different dimer interface than dPER, which is stabilized by interactions of the PAS-B beta-sheet surface including tryptophane 419 (equivalent to Trp482dPER). We have validated and quantitatively analysed the homodimer interactions of dPER and mPER2 by site-directed mutagenesis using analytical gel filtration, analytical ultracentrifugation, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Furthermore we show, by yeast-two-hybrid experiments, that the PAS-B beta-sheet surface of dPER mediates interactions with TIMELESS (dTIM). Our study reveals quantitative and qualitative differences between the homodimeric PAS domain interactions of dPER and its mammalian homologue mPER2. In addition, we identify the PAS-B beta-sheet surface as a versatile interaction site mediating mPER2 homodimerization in the mammalian system and dPER-dTIM heterodimer formation in the Drosophila system.
- A new type of proton coordination in an F1Fo-ATP synthase rotor ring (2010)
- We solved the crystal structure of a novel type of c-ring isolated from Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 at 2.5 Å, revealing a cylinder with a tridecameric stoichiometry, a central pore, and an overall shape that is distinct from those reported thus far. Within the groove of two neighboring c-subunits, the conserved glutamate of the outer helix shares the proton with a bound water molecule which itself is coordinated by three other amino acids of outer helices. Although none of the inner helices contributes to ion binding and the glutamate has no other hydrogen bonding partner than the water oxygen, the site remains in a stable, ion-locked conformation that represents the functional state present at the c-ring/membrane interface during rotation. This structure reveals a new, third type of ion coordination in ATP synthases. It appears in the ion binding site of an alkaliphile in which it represents a finely tuned adaptation of the proton affinity during the reaction cycle. Formal Correction: This article has been formally corrected to address the following errors. 1. The images for Figures S2 and S3 were incorrectly switched. The image that appears as Figure S2 should be Figure S3, and the image that appears as Figure S3 should be Figure S2. The figure legends appear in the correct order. Please view the correct... (read formal correction) 2. The images for Figures S2 and S3 were incorrectly switched. The image that appears as Figure S2 should be Figure S3, and the image that appears as Figure S3 should be Figure S2. The figure legends appear in the correct order. Please view the correct... (read formal correction)