Year of publication
- Nonequilibrium fluid-dynamics in the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (1997)
- To describe ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions we construct a three-fluid hydrodynamical model. In contrast to one-fluid hydrodynamics, it accounts for the finite stopping power of nuclear matter, i.e. for nonequilibrium e ects in the early stage of the reaction. Within this model, we study baryon dynamics in the BNL-AGS energy range. For the system Au+Au we find that kinetic equilibrium between projectile and target nucleons is established only after a time teq CM H 5 fm/c C 2RAu/³CM. Observables which are sensitive to the early stage of the collision (like e.g. nucleon flow) therefore di er considerably from those calculated in the one-fluid model.
- "Soft'' transverse expansion and flow in a multi-fluid model without phase transition (1997)
- Abstract: We study transverse expansion and directed flow in Au(11AGeV)Au reactions within a multi-fluid dynamical model. Although we do not employ an equation of state (EoS) with a first order phase transition, we find a slow increase of the transverse velocities of the nucleons with time. A similar behaviour can be observed for the directed nucleon flow. This is due to non-equilibrium e ects which also lead to less and slower conversion of longitudinal into transverse momentum. We also show that the proton rapidity distribution at CERN energies, as calculated within this model, agrees well with the preliminary NA44-data.
- Probes for the early reaction dynamics of heavy ion collisions at AGS and SPS (1997)
- We discuss the early evolution of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions within a multi- fluid dynamical model. In particular, we show that due to the finite mean-free path of the particles compression shock waves are smeared out considerably as compared to the one-fluid limit. Also, the maximal energy density of the baryons is much lower. We discuss the time scale of kinetic equilibration of the baryons in the central region and its relevance for directed flow. Finally, thermal emission of direct photons from the fluid of produced particles is calculated within the three-fluid model and two other simple expansion models. It is shown that the transverse momentum and rapidity spectra of photons give clue to the cooling law and the early rapidity distribution of the photon source.
- Hadron and hadron cluster production in a hydrodynamical model including particle evaporation (1997)
- We discuss the evolution of the mixed phase at RHIC and SPS within boostinvariant hydrodynamics. In addition to the hydrodynamical expansion, we also consider evaporation of particles o the surface of the fluid. The back-reaction of this evaporation process on the dynamics of the fluid shortens the lifetime of the mixed phase. In our model this lifetime of the mixed phase is d 12 fm/c in Au + Au at RHIC and d 6.5 fm/c in Pb + Pb at SPS, even in the limit of vanishing transverse expansion velocity. Strong separation of strangeness occurs, especially in events (or at rapidities) with relatively high initial net baryon and strangeness number, enhancing the multiplicity of MEMOs (multiply strange nuclear clusters). If antiquarks and antibaryons reach saturation in the course of the pure QGP or mixed phase, we find that at RHIC the ratio of antideuterons to deuterons may exceed 0.3 and even 4He/4He > 0.1. In S + Au at SPS we find only N/N H 0.1. Due to fluctuations, at RHIC even negative baryon number at midrapidity is possible in individual events, so that the antibaryon and antibaryon-cluster yields exceed those of the corresponding baryons and clusters.
- Nuclear shadowing effects on prompt photons at RHIC and LHC (1998)
- The transverse momentum distribution of prompt photons coming from the very early phase of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions for the RHIC and LHC energies is calculated by means of perturbative QCD. We calculate the single photon cross section (A + B -> gamma + X) by taking into account the partonic sub processes q + q -> gamma + g and q + g -> gamma + q as well as the Bremsstrahlung corrections to those processes. We choose a lower momentum cut-off k0 = 2 GeV separating the soft physics from perturbative QCD. We compare the results for those primary collisions with the photons produced in reactions of the thermalized secondary particles, which are calculated within scaling hydrodynamics. The QCD processes are taken in leading order. Nuclear shadowing corrections, which alter the involved nuclear structure functions are explicitly taken into account and compared to unshadowed results. Employing the GRV parton distribution parametrizations we find that at RHIC prompt QCD-photons dominate over the thermal radiation down to transverse momenta kT ≈ 2 GeV. At LHC, however, thermal radiation from the QGP dominates for photon transverse momenta kT ≤ 5 GeV, if nuclear shadowing effects on prompt photon production are taken into account.
- Fluctuations and inhomogenities of energy density and isospin in Pb + Pb at the SPS (1998)
- The main goal of heavy ion physics in the last fifteen years has been the search for the quark-gluon-plasma(QGP). Until now, unambigous experimental evidence for the QGP is missing.
- Direct photons in Pb+Pb at CERN-SPS from microscopic transport theory (1997)
- Direct photon production in central Pb+Pb collisions at CERN-SPS energy is calculated within the relativistic microscopic transport model UrQMD, and within distinctly di erent versions of relativistic hydrodynamics. We find that in UrQMD the local momentum distributions of the secondaries are strongly elongated along the beam axis initially. Therefore, the preequilibrium contribution dominates the photon spectrum at transverse momenta above H 1.5 GeV. The hydrodynamics prediction of a strong correlation between the temperature and radial expansion velocities on the one hand and the slope of the transverse momentum distribution of direct photons on the other hand thus is not recovered in UrQMD. The rapidity distribution of direct photons in UrQMD reveals that the initial conditions for the longitudinal expansion of the photon source (the meson fluid ) resemble rather boostinvariance than Landau-like flow.
- Critical review of quark gluon plasma signatures (1999)
- Noneequilibrium models (three-fluid hydrodynamics and UrQMD) use to discuss the uniqueness of often proposed experimental signatures for quark matter formation in relativistic heavy ion collisions. It is demonstrated that these two models - although they do treat the most interesting early phase of the collisions quite differently(thermalizing QGP vs. coherent color fields with virtual particles) - both yields a reasonable agreement with a large variety of the available heavy ion data.
- Direct emission of multiple strange baryons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions from the phase boundary (1999)
- We discuss a model for the space-time evolution of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions which employs relativistic hydrodynamics within one region of the forward light-cone, and microscopic transport theory (i.e. UrQMD) in the complement. Our initial condition consists of a quark-gluon plasma which expands hydrodynamically and hadronizes. After hadronization the solution eventually changes from expansion in local equilibrium to free streaming, as determined selfconsistently by the interaction rates between the hadrons and the local expansion rate. We show that in such a scenario the inverse slopes of the mT -spectra of multiple strange baryons ( Xi,Omega) are practically una ected by the purely hadronic stage of the reaction, while the flow of p's and Lambda's increases. Moreover, we find that the rather soft transverse expansion at RHIC energies (due to a first-order phase transition) is not washed out by strong rescattering in the hadronic stage. The earlier kinetic freeze-out as compared to SPS-energies results in similar inverse slopes (of the mT -spectra of the hadrons in the final state) at RHIC and SPS energies.
- Hadronic freeze-out following a first order hadronization phase transition in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (1999)
- We analyze the hadronic freeze-out in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC in a transport approach which combines hydrodynamics for the early, dense, deconfined stage of the reaction with a microscopic non-equilibrium model for the later hadronic stage at which the hydrodynamic equilibrium assumptions are not valid. With this ansatz we are able to self-consistently calculate the freeze-out of the system and determine space-time hypersurfaces for individual hadron species. The space-time domains of the freeze-out for several hadron species are found to be actually four-dimensional, and di er drastically for the individual hadrons species. Freeze-out radii distributions are similar in width for most hadron species, even though the is found to be emitted rather close to the phase boundary and shows the smallest freeze- out radii and times among all baryon species. The total lifetime of the system does not change by more than 10% when going from SPS to RHIC energies.