### Refine

- Three-component fluid dynamics for the description of energetic heavy-ion reactions (1982)
- The nucleons taking part in heavy ion reaction are considered as a three-component fluid. The first and second components correspond to the nucleons of the target and the projectile, while the thermalized nucleons produced in the course of the collision belong to the third component. Making use of the Boltzmann equation, hydrodynamical equations are derived. An equation of state for anisotropic nuclear matter obtained from a field theoretical model in mean field approximation is applied in a one dimensional version of the three-component fluid model. The speed of thermalization is analyzed and compared to the results of cascade and kinetic models. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Relativistic heavy-ion reactions, hydrodynamic description.

- Influence of shape fluctuations in relativistic heavy ion collisions (1986)
- The influence of fluctuations of the shape degree of freedom in collisions of deformed nuclei with energies between 0.8 and 2.1 GeV/nucleon is analyzed on the basis of an intranuclear cascade simulation for the strongly deformed systems 46Ti+ 46Ti and 166Er+ 166Er. While there is a considerable sensitivity of the global event variables to the orientation for polarized beams and targets, this dependence disappears in the average over all orientations for impact parameter selected and integrated events. The dependence of the nuclear stopping and thermalization on the size of the system under consideration and on the bombarding energy is also investigated.

- Fragment emission in high-energy heavy-ion reactions (1983)
- We present a theoretical description of nuclear collisions which consists of a three-dimensional fluid-dynamical model, a chemical equilibrium breakup calculation for local light fragment (i.e., p, n, d, t, 3He, and 4He) production, and a final thermal evaporation of these particles. The light fragment cross sections and some properties of the heavy target residues are calculated for the asymmetric system Ne+U at 400 MeV/N. The results of the model calculations are compared with recent experimental data. Several observable signatures of the collective hydrodynamical processes are consistent with the present data. An event-by-event analysis of the flow patterns of the various clusters is proposed which can yield deeper insight into the collision dynamics.

- Importance of momentum dependent interactions for the extraction of the nuclear equation of state from high-energy heavy ion collisions (1987)
- We demonstrate that momentum-dependent nuclear interactions (MDI) have a large effect on the dynamics and on the observables of high-energy heavy-ion collisions: A soft potential with MDI suppresses pion and kaon yields much more strongly than a local hard potential and results in transverse momenta intermediate between soft and hard local potentials. The collective-flow angles and the deuteron-to-proton ratios are rather insensitive to the MDI. Only simultaneous measurements of these observables can give clues on the nuclear equation of state at densities of interest for supernova collapse and neutron-star stability.

- Multifragmentation, fragment flow, and the nuclear equation of state (1989)
- The quantum molecular dynamic method is used to study multifragmentation and fragment flow and their dependence on in-medium cross sections, momentum dependent interactions, and the nuclear equation of state, for collisions of 197Au+197Au and 93Nb+93Nb in the bombarding energy regime from 100 to 800A MeV. Time and impact parameter dependence of the fragment formation and their implications for the conjectured liquid-vapor phase transition are investigated. We find that the inclusive fragment mass distribution is independent of the equation of state and exhibits a power-law behavior Y(A)∼A-τ with an exponent τ≊-2.3. True multifragmentation events are found in central collisions for energies Elab∼30–200 MeV/nucleon. The associated light fragment (d,t,α) to proton ratios increase with the multiplicity of charged particles and decrease with energy, in agreement with recent experiments. The calculated absolute charged particle multiplicities, the multiplicities of intermediate mass (A>4) fragments, and their respective rapidity distributions do compare well with recent 4π data, but are quite insensitive to the equation of state. On the other hand, these quantities depend sensitively on the nucleon-nucleon scattering cross section, and can be used to determine σ experimentally. The transverse momentum flow of the complex fragments increases with the stiffness of the equation of state. Reduced (in-medium) n-n scattering cross sections reduce the fragment flow. Momentum dependent interactions increase the fragment flow. It is shown that the measured fragment flow at 200A MeV can be reproduced in the model. We find that also the increase of the px/A values with the fragment mass is in agreement with experiments. The calculated fragment flow is too small as compared to the plastic ball data, if a soft equation of state with in-medium corrections (momentum dependent interactions plus reduced cross sections) is employed. An alternative, most intriguing resolution of the puzzle about the stiffness of the equation of state could be an increase of the scattering cross sections due to precritical scattering in the vicinity of a phase transition.

- The role of quantum effects and nonequilibrium transport coefficients for relativistic heavy ion collisions (1992)
- Stopping power and thermalization in relativistic heavy ion collisions is investigated employing the quantum molecular dynamics approach. For heavy systems stopping of the incoming nuclei is predicted, independent of the energy. The influence of the quantum effects and their increasing importance at low energies, is demonstrated by inspection of the mean free path of the nucleons and the n-n collision number. Classical models, which neglect these effects, overestimate the stopping and the thermalization as well as the collective flow and squeeze out. The sensitivity of the transverse and longitudinal momentum transfer to the in-medium cross section and to the pressure is investigated.