- Solid-state NMR investigations of the ATP binding cassette multidrug transporter LmrA (2006)
- The development of resistance to multiple drugs is a major problem in treatment of number of infectious diseases and cancer. The phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) is based on the synergetic interplay of a number of mechanisms such as target inactivation, target alteration, prevention of drug influx as well as active extrusion of drugs from the cell. The latter is mediated by over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps. The first discovered and the best characterized until now the human MDR transporter is P-glycoprotein. It is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily and acts as an active transporter for a variety of anticancer agents using the energy released by ATP hydrolysis. The closest structure and functional homologue of P-glycoprotein found in bacteria is LmrA from Lactococcus lactis. The major goals of this work are to establish the selective isotope labelling of LmrA in Lactococcus lactis, to optimize LmrA sample preparation for solid-state NMR, and finally to perform first solidstate NMR investigations on LmrA shedding light on its catalytic cycle and substrate binding. For a long time the solid-state NMR applications to biological science has been limited to investigation of small molecules mostly. Recently, the solid-state NMR methods have shown potential for structuraland non-perturbing, site directed functional studies of large membrane proteins as well as ligands bound to them. However, to our knowledge neither selective isotope amino acid labelling of any ABC transporter, nor NMR investigations on full-length ABC transporter have been reported to date. Solidstate NMR experiments on a membrane protein require reconstitution of purified proteins into a membrane environment at a high density and either isotopic enrichment of the protein or bound drugs or inhibitors. Therefore, the large quantities of LmrA reconstituted at a high density in lipid membranes, sufficient for advanced NMR studies have been produced and its functional state in reconstituted form has been assessed. In the next step, a procedure for cost effective selective amino acids isotope labelling of LmrA in Lactococcus lactis has been established. Using this protocol deuterium alanine labelled LmrA reconstituted into E. coli liposomes has been prepared. Deuterium NMR has been used extensively to assess the proteins dynamics in past. However, it has never been applied to ABC transporter. Here, we report 2H NMR on selective alanine isotope labelled LmrA which has been used to shed light on the dynamics changes in the protein occurred under AMP-PNP, non-hydrolysable ATP analogue, binding and in ATP/ADP-Vanadate trapped state. It has been found that the major conformation changes affecting the protein motional characteristics occur in the ATP binding domains but not in the transmembrane domains. Additionally, the binding of several substrates to LmrA has been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy as well as by 19F and 31P solid-state NMR. The binding constants for several LmrA substrates have been obtained by fitting the concentration dependant tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence quenching curves. Based on the fluorescence studies and solid-state NMR data, the conformation changes in LmrA under substrate binding have been discussed. In addition, the preferable location of nine LmrA and P-glycoprotein substrates within the model membrane has been studied via 1H-MAS-NOESY-NMR. The results have been interpreted with respect to LmrA and P-glycoprotein binding site accessibility from the membrane interface region.