- Der mikroskopische Blick auf die Moleküle des Lebens : Massenspektrometrie: Wäge- und Analysetechnik in einem (2004)
- Der wissenschaftliche Fortschritt in Chemie, Biowissenschaften und Medizin basiert auf den immer detaillierteren Erkenntnissen über die molekularen Prozesse des Lebens. Eine Voraussetzung dafür sind Fortschritte bei den analytischen Methoden, Techniken und Instrumenten. In dem heute zur Verfügung stehendem Instrumentarium spielt die Massenspektrometrie eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle. Wenn aktuell ein neuer Doping-Skandal durch die Presse geht, sind immer massenspektrometrische Techniken im Spiel: Sie ermöglichen den Nachweis von erlaubten und verbotenen Substanzen aller Art – auch Dopingmitteln.
- Functional dissection of the proton pumping modules of mitochondrial complex I (2011)
- Mitochondrial complex I, the largest and most complicated proton pump of the respiratory chain, links the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone to the pumping of four protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space. In humans, defects in complex I are involved in a wide range of degenerative disorders. Recent progress in the X-ray structural analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic complex I confirmed that the redox reactions are confined entirely to the hydrophilic peripheral arm of the L-shaped molecule and take place at a remarkable distance from the membrane domain. While this clearly implies that the proton pumping within the membrane arm of complex I is driven indirectly via long-range conformational coupling, the molecular mechanism and the number, identity, and localization of the pump-sites remains unclear. Here, we report that upon deletion of the gene for a small accessory subunit of the Yarrowia complex I, a stable subcomplex (nb8m delta) is formed that lacks the distal part of the membrane domain as revealed by single particle analysis. The analysis of the subunit composition of holo and subcomplex by three complementary proteomic approaches revealed that two (ND4 and ND5) of the three subunits with homology to bacterial Mrp-type Na+/H+ antiporters that have been discussed as prime candidates for harbouring the proton pumps were missing in nb8m delta. Nevertheless, nb8m delta still pumps protons at half the stoichiometry of the complete enzyme. Our results provide evidence that the membrane arm of complex I harbours two functionally distinct pump modules that are connected in series by the long helical transmission element recently identified by X-ray structural analysis.
- DNA damage in oocytes induces a switch of the quality control factor TAp63α from dimer to tetramer (2011)
- TAp63a, a homolog of the p53 tumor suppressor, is a quality control factor in the female germline. Remarkably, already undamaged oocytes express high levels of the protein, suggesting that TAp63a’s activity is under tight control of an inhibitory mechanism. Biochemical studies have proposed that inhibition requires the C-terminal transactivation inhibitory domain. However, the structural mechanism of TAp63a inhibition remains unknown. Here, we show that TAp63a is kept in an inactive dimeric state. We reveal that relief of inhibition leads to tetramer formation with ~20-fold higher DNA affinity. In vivo, phosphorylation-triggered tetramerization of TAp63a is not reversible by dephosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that a helix in the oligomerization domain of p63 is crucial for tetramer stabilization and competes with the transactivation domain for the same binding site. Our results demonstrate how TAp63a is inhibited by complex domain-domain interactions that provide the basis for regulating quality control in oocytes.