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- Separation of strangeness from antistrangeness in the phase transition from quark to hadron matter: Possible formation of strange quark matter in heavy-ion collisions (1987)
- We present a mechanism for the separation of strangeness from antistrangeness in the deconfinement transition. For a net strangeness of zero in the total system, the population of s quarks is greatly enriched in the quark-gluon plasma, while the s¯ quarks drift into the hadronic phase. This separation could result in ‘‘strangelet’’ formation, i.e., metastable blobs of strange-quark matter, which could serve as a unique signature for quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ion collisions. PACS: 25.70.Np, 12.38.Mh

- Creation of strange-quark-matter droplets as a unique signature for quark-gluon plasma formation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions (1988)
- We demonstrate that strangeness separates in the Gibbs-phase coexistence between a baryon-rich quark-gluon plasma and hadron matter, even at T=0. For finite temperatures this is due to the associated production of kaons (containing s¯ quarks) in the hadron phase while s quarks remain in the deconfined phase. The s-s¯ separation results in a strong enhancement of the s-quark abundance in the quark phase. This mechanism is further supported by cooling and net strangeness enrichment due to the prefreezeout evaporation of pions and K+, K0, which carry away entropy and anti- strangeness from the system. Metastable droplets (i.e., stable as far as weak interactions are not regarded) of strange-quark matter (‘‘strangelets’’) can thus be formed during the phase transition. Such cool, compact, long-lived clusters could be experimentally observed by their unusually small Z/A ratio (≤0.1–0.3). Even if the strange-quark-matter phase is not stable under strong interactions, it should be observable by the delayed correlated emission of several hyperons. This would serve as a unique signature for the transient formation of a quark-gluon plasma.

- Metastable exotic multihypernuclear objects (1992)
- Relativistic heavy ion collisions constitute a prolific source of hyperons: tens of hyperons per event are predicted at energies E≥10 GeV/nucleon, providing a scenario for the formation of metastable exotic multihypernuclear objects. They may exhibit exceptional properties: bound neutral (e.g., 4M2Λ2n, 10M2Λ8n, pure Λ droplets, 8Λ) and even negatively charged composites objects with positive baryon number (e.g., 4M2Σ-2n, 6M2Λ2Ξ-2n) could be formed in rare events. Such negative nuclei can easily be identified in a magnetic spectrometer. They could be considerably more abundant than antinuclei of the same A. We use the relativistic meson-baryon field theory—which gives an excellent description of normal nuclear and single-Λ hypernuclear properties—to calculate the rich spectrum of such exotic objects, their stability, and their structure. We also find solutions for a large variety of bound short-lived nuclei (e.g., 8M2Λ,2Σ-2p2n), which may decay strongly via formation of cascade (Ξ) particles. Multi-Ξ hypernuclei are also evaluated. A variety of potential candidates for such metastable exotic nuclei is presented. It turns out that the properties of such exotic multihypernuclear objects reveal quite similar features as the strangelet proposed as a unique signature for quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy ion collisions.

- Distillation and survival of strange quark matter droplets in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions (1991)
- Recently it has been suggested that rather cold droplets of absolutely stable or metastable strange-quark matter may be distilled in heavy-ion collisions during the phase transition from a baryon-rich quark-gluon plasma (QGP) to hadron matter. Here we present a model describing the hadronization of the QGP through particle emission, which is based solely on thermodynamical arguments. Pions and K+’s and K0’s carry away entropy and antistrangeness from the system, thus facilitating the cooling process and the strangelet formation. Our results are supported by revised more sophisticated rate calculations. Two rather unexpected results are obtained when this model is applied to the investigation of strangelet production. The strangeness separation mechanism and the formation process works well even for higher initial entropies per baryon, tantamount to higher bombarding energies. The surviving strangelets have a rather high strangeness content, fs∼1.2–2 [i.e., Z/A∼(-0.1)–(-0.5)]. Hence droplets of strange-quark matter with a baryon number of ∼10–30 and with a negative charge may be produced. They may serve as a unique signature for the transient formation of a quark-gluon plasma in heavy-ion collisions.

- Strange hadronic matter (1993)
- In an extended mean field theory, we find a large class of bound multistrange objects, formed from combinations of {p,n,Λ,Ξ0,Ξ-} baryons, which are stable against strong decay. We predict a maximal binding energy per baryon of EB/A≊-21 MeV, strangeness per baryon fs≊1.2, charge per baryon fq≊-0.1 to 0, and baryon density 2.5–3 times that of ordinary nuclei. For A≥6, we obtain stable combinations involving only {Λ,Ξ0,Ξ-} hyperons.

- Creation of strange matter at low initial m/T (1996)
- We demonstrate that the creation of strange matter is conceivable in the midrapidity region of heavy ion collisions at Brookhaven RHIC and CERN LHC. A finite net-baryon density, abundant (anti)strangeness production, as well as strong net-baryon and net-strangeness fluctuations, provide suitable initial conditions for the formation of strangelets or metastable exotic multistrange ( baryonic) objects. Even at very high initial entropy per baryon SyAinit ¯ 500 and low initial baryon numbers of Ainit B ¯ 30 a quark-gluon-plasma droplet can immediately charge up with strangeness and accumulate net-baryon number. PACS numbers: 25.75.Dw, 12.38.Mh, 24.85.+

- Heavy quarks and charmonium at RHIC and LHC within a partonic transport model (2011)
- Heavy quark and charmonium production as well as their space-time evolution are studied in transport simulations of heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. In the partonic transport model Boltzmann Approach of MultiParton Scatterings (BAMPS) heavy quarks can be produced in initial hard parton scatterings or during the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma. Subsequently, they interact with the medium via binary scatterings with a running coupling and a more precise Debye screening which is derived from hard thermal loop calculations, participate in the flow and lose energy. We present results of the elliptic flow and nuclear modification factor of heavy quarks and compare them to available data. Furthermore, preliminary results on J/psi suppression at forward and mid-rapidity are reported for central and non-central collisions at RHIC. For this, we study cold nuclear matter effects and the dissociation as well as regeneration of J/psi in the quark-gluon plasma. XLIX International Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics 24-28 January 2011 BORMIO, Italy

- Collective flow and mach cones with transport (2011)
- Fast thermalization and a strong build up of elliptic flow of QCD matter were investigated within the pQCD based 3+1 dimensional parton transport model BAMPS including bremsstrahlung 2 <-> 3 processes. Within the same framework quenching of gluonic jets in Au+Au collisions at RHIC can be understood. The development of conical structure by gluonic jets is investigated in a static box for the regimes of small and large dissipation. Furthermore we demonstrate two different approaches to extract the shear viscosity coefficient n from a microscopical picture.

- Investigation of shear stress and shear flow within a partonic transport model (2010)
- Starting from a classical picture of shear viscosity we construct a steady velocity gradient in the partonic cascade BAMPS. Using the Navier-Stokes-equation we calculate the shear viscosity coefficient. For elastic isotropic scatterings we find a very good agreement with the analytic values. For both elastic and inelastic scatterings with pQCD cross sections we find good agreement with previously published calculations.

- Relativistic shock waves and Mach cones in viscous gluon matter (2010)
- To investigate the formation and the propagation of relativistic shock waves in viscous gluon matter we solve the relativistic Riemann problem using a microscopic parton cascade. We demonstrate the transition from ideal to viscous shock waves by varying the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio n/s. Furthermore we compare our results with those obtained by solving the relativistic causal dissipative fluid equations of Israel and Stewart (IS), in order to show the validity of the IS hydrodynamics. Employing the parton cascade we also investigate the formation of Mach shocks induced by a high-energy gluon traversing viscous gluon matter. For n/s = 0.08 a Mach cone structure is observed, whereas the signal smears out for n/s >=0.32.