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- The Complexity of Approximate Optima for Greatest Common Divisor Computations (1996)
- We study the approximability of the following NP-complete (in their feasibility recognition forms) number theoretic optimization problems: 1. Given n numbers a1 ; : : : ; an 2 Z, find a minimum gcd set for a1 ; : : : ; an , i.e., a subset S fa1 ; : : : ; ang with minimum cardinality satisfying gcd(S) = gcd(a1 ; : : : ; an ). 2. Given n numbers a1 ; : : : ; an 2 Z, find a 1-minimum gcd multiplier for a1 ; : : : ; an , i.e., a vector x 2 Z n with minimum max 1in jx i j satisfying P n...

- Factoring via strong lattice reduction algorithm : technical report (1997)
- We address to the problem to factor a large composite number by lattice reduction algorithms. Schnorr has shown that under a reasonable number theoretic assumptions this problem can be reduced to a simultaneous diophantine approximation problem. The latter in turn can be solved by finding sufficiently many l_1--short vectors in a suitably defined lattice. Using lattice basis reduction algorithms Schnorr and Euchner applied Schnorrs reduction technique to 40--bit long integers. Their implementation needed several hours to compute a 5% fraction of the solution, i.e., 6 out of 125 congruences which are necessary to factorize the composite. In this report we describe a more efficient implementation using stronger lattice basis reduction techniques incorporating ideas of Schnorr, Hoerner and Ritter. For 60--bit long integers our algorithm yields a complete factorization in less than 3 hours.

- An optimal, stable continued fraction algorithm for arbitrary dimension (1996)
- We analyse a continued fraction algorithm (abbreviated CFA) for arbitrary dimension n showing that it produces simultaneous diophantine approximations which are up to the factor 2^((n+2)/4) best possible. Given a real vector x=(x_1,...,x_{n-1},1) in R^n this CFA generates a sequence of vectors (p_1^(k),...,p_{n-1}^(k),q^(k)) in Z^n, k=1,2,... with increasing integers |q^{(k)}| satisfying for i=1,...,n-1 | x_i - p_i^(k)/q^(k) | <= 2^((n+2)/4) sqrt(1+x_i^2) |q^(k)|^(1+1/(n-1)) By a theorem of Dirichlet this bound is best possible in that the exponent 1+1/(n-1) can in general not be increased.

- On the hardness of approximating shortest integer relations among rational numbers (1996)
- Given x small epsilon, Greek Rn an integer relation for x is a non-trivial vector m small epsilon, Greek Zn with inner product <m,x> = 0. In this paper we prove the following: Unless every NP language is recognizable in deterministic quasi-polynomial time, i.e., in time O(npoly(log n)), the ℓinfinity-shortest integer relation for a given vector x small epsilon, Greek Qn cannot be approximated in polynomial time within a factor of 2log0.5 − small gamma, Greekn, where small gamma, Greek is an arbitrarily small positive constant. This result is quasi-complementary to positive results derived from lattice basis reduction. A variant of the well-known L3-algorithm approximates for a vector x small epsilon, Greek Qn the ℓ2-shortest integer relation within a factor of 2n/2 in polynomial time. Our proof relies on recent advances in the theory of probabilistically checkable proofs, in particular on a reduction from 2-prover 1-round interactive proof-systems. The same inapproximability result is valid for finding the ℓinfinity-shortest integer solution for a homogeneous linear system of equations over Q.

- Approximating good simultaneous diophantine approximations is almost NP-hard (1997)
- Given a real vector alpha =(alpha1 ; : : : ; alpha d ) and a real number E > 0 a good Diophantine approximation to alpha is a number Q such that IIQ alpha mod Zk1 ", where k \Delta k1 denotes the 1-norm kxk1 := max 1id jx i j for x = (x1 ; : : : ; xd ). Lagarias [12] proved the NP-completeness of the corresponding decision problem, i.e., given a vector ff 2 Q d , a rational number " ? 0 and a number N 2 N+ , decide whether there exists a number Q with 1 Q N and kQff mod Zk1 ". We prove that, unless ...

- A Stable Integer Relation Algorithm (1994)
- We study the following problem: given x element Rn either find a short integer relation m element Zn, so that =0 holds for the inner product <.,.>, or prove that no short integer relation exists for x. Hastad, Just Lagarias and Schnorr (1989) give a polynomial time algorithm for the problem. We present a stable variation of the HJLS--algorithm that preserves lower bounds on lambda(x) for infinitesimal changes of x. Given x \in {\RR}^n and \alpha \in \NN this algorithm finds a nearby point x' and a short integer relation m for x'. The nearby point x' is 'good' in the sense that no very short relation exists for points \bar{x} within half the x'--distance from x. On the other hand if x'=x then m is, up to a factor 2^{n/2}, a shortest integer relation for \mbox{x.} Our algorithm uses, for arbitrary real input x, at most \mbox{O(n^4(n+\log \alpha))} many arithmetical operations on real numbers. If x is rational the algorithm operates on integers having at most \mbox{O(n^5+n^3 (\log \alpha)^2 + \log (\|q x\|^2))} many bits where q is the common denominator for x.

- Computation of highly regular nearby points (1995)
- We call a vector x/spl isin/R/sup n/ highly regular if it satisfies =0 for some short, non-zero integer vector m where <...> is the inner product. We present an algorithm which given x/spl isin/R/sup n/ and /spl alpha//spl isin/N finds a highly regular nearby point x' and a short integer relation m for x'. The nearby point x' is 'good' in the sense that no short relation m~ of length less than /spl alpha//2 exists for points x~ within half the x'-distance from x. The integer relation m for x' is for random x up to an average factor 2/sup /spl alpha//2/ a shortest integer relation for x'. Our algorithm uses, for arbitrary real input x, at most O(n/sup 4/(n+log A)) many arithmetical operations on real numbers. If a is rational the algorithm operates on integers having at most O(n/sup 5/+n/sup 3/(log /spl alpha/)/sup 2/+log(/spl par/qx/spl par//sup 2/)) many bits where q is the common denominator for x.