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- A call-by-need lambda-calculus with locally bottom-avoiding choice: context lemma and correctness of transformations (2008)
- We present a higher-order call-by-need lambda calculus enriched with constructors, case-expressions, recursive letrec-expressions, a seq-operator for sequential evaluation and a non-deterministic operator amb that is locally bottom-avoiding. We use a small-step operational semantics in form of a single-step rewriting system that defines a (nondeterministic) normal order reduction. This strategy can be made fair by adding resources for bookkeeping. As equational theory we use contextual equivalence, i.e. terms are equal if plugged into any program context their termination behaviour is the same, where we use a combination of may- as well as must-convergence, which is appropriate for non-deterministic computations. We show that we can drop the fairness condition for equational reasoning, since the valid equations w.r.t. normal order reduction are the same as for fair normal order reduction. We evolve different proof tools for proving correctness of program transformations, in particular, a context lemma for may- as well as mustconvergence is proved, which restricts the number of contexts that need to be examined for proving contextual equivalence. In combination with so-called complete sets of commuting and forking diagrams we show that all the deterministic reduction rules and also some additional transformations preserve contextual equivalence.We also prove a standardisation theorem for fair normal order reduction. The structure of the ordering <=c a is also analysed: Ω is not a least element, and <=c already implies contextual equivalence w.r.t. may-convergence.

- Automating the diagram method to prove correctness of program transformations (2018)
- Our recently developed LRSX Tool implements a technique to automatically prove the correctness of program transformations in higher-order program calculi which may permit recursive let-bindings as they occur in functional programming languages. A program transformation is correct if it preserves the observational semantics of programs- In our tool the so-called diagram method is automated by combining unification, matching, and reasoning on alpha-renamings on the higher-order metalanguage, and automating induction proofs via an encoding into termination problems of term rewrite systems. We explain the techniques, we illustrate the usage of the tool, and we report on experiments.

- Nominal uniﬁcation with atom and context variables (2018)
- Automated deduction in higher-order program calculi, where properties of transformation rules are demanded, or confluence or other equational properties are requested, can often be done by syntactically computing overlaps (critical pairs) of reduction rules and transformation rules. Since higher-order calculi have alpha-equivalence as fundamental equivalence, the reasoning procedure must deal with it. We define ASD1-unification problems, which are higher-order equational unification problems employing variables for atoms, expressions and contexts, with additional distinct-variable constraints, and which have to be solved w.r.t. alpha-equivalence. Our proposal is to extend nominal unification to solve these unification problems. We succeeded in constructing the nominal unification algorithm NomUnifyASC. We show that NomUnifyASC is sound and complete for these problem class, and outputs a set of unifiers with constraints in nondeterministic polynomial time if the final constraints are satisfiable. We also show that solvability of the output constraints can be decided in NEXPTIME, and for a fixed number of context-variables in NP time. For terms without context-variables and atom-variables, NomUnifyASC runs in polynomial time, is unitary, and extends the classical problem by permitting distinct-variable constraints. 1998 ACM Subject Classification F.4.1 Mathematical Logic

- On generic context lemmas for lambda calculi with sharing (2007)
- This paper proves several generic variants of context lemmas and thus contributes to improving the tools to develop observational semantics that is based on a reduction semantics for a language. The context lemmas are provided for may- as well as two variants of mustconvergence and a wide class of extended lambda calculi, which satisfy certain abstract conditions. The calculi must have a form of node sharing, e.g. plain beta reduction is not permitted. There are two variants, weakly sharing calculi, where the beta-reduction is only permitted for arguments that are variables, and strongly sharing calculi, which roughly correspond to call-by-need calculi, where beta-reduction is completely replaced by a sharing variant. The calculi must obey three abstract assumptions, which are in general easily recognizable given the syntax and the reduction rules. The generic context lemmas have as instances several context lemmas already proved in the literature for specific lambda calculi with sharing. The scope of the generic context lemmas comprises not only call-by-need calculi, but also call-by-value calculi with a form of built-in sharing. Investigations in other, new variants of extended lambda-calculi with sharing, where the language or the reduction rules and/or strategy varies, will be simplified by our result, since specific context lemmas are immediately derivable from the generic context lemma, provided our abstract conditions are met.

- Adequacy of compositional translations for observational semantics (2008)
- We investigate methods and tools for analysing translations between programming languages with respect to observational semantics. The behaviour of programs is observed in terms of may- and mustconvergence in arbitrary contexts, and adequacy of translations, i.e., the reflection of program equivalence, is taken to be the fundamental correctness condition. For compositional translations we propose a notion of convergence equivalence as a means for proving adequacy. This technique avoids explicit reasoning about contexts, and is able to deal with the subtle role of typing in implementations of language extensions.

- Adequacy of compositional translations for observational semantics (2008)
- We investigate methods and tools for analysing translations between programming languages with respect to observational semantics. The behaviour of programs is observed in terms of may- and must-convergence in arbitrary contexts, and adequacy of translations, i.e., the reﬂection of program equivalence, is taken to be the fundamental correctness condition. For compositional translations we propose a notion of convergence equivalence as a means for proving adequacy. This technique avoids explicit reasoning about contexts, and is able to deal with the subtle role of typing in implementations of language extension.

- Adequacy of compositional translations for observational semantics (2009)
- We investigate methods and tools for analyzing translations between programming languages with respect to observational semantics. The behavior of programs is observed in terms of may- and mustconvergence in arbitrary contexts, and adequacy of translations, i.e., the reflection of program equivalence, is taken to be the fundamental correctness condition. For compositional translations we propose a notion of convergence equivalence as a means for proving adequacy. This technique avoids explicit reasoning about contexts, and is able to deal with the subtle role of typing in implementations of language extensions.

- Adequacy of compositional translations for observational semantics (2008)
- We investigate methods and tools for analysing translations between programming languages with respect to observational semantics. The behaviour of programs is observed in terms of may- and mustconvergence in arbitrary contexts, and adequacy of translations, i.e., the reflection of program equivalence, is taken to be the fundamental correctness condition. For compositional translations we propose a notion of convergence equivalence as a means for proving adequacy. This technique avoids explicit reasoning about contexts, and is able to deal with the subtle role of typing in implementations of language extensions.

- Extending Abramsky's lazy lambda calculus: (non)-conservativity of embeddings (2013)
- Our motivation is the question whether the lazy lambda calculus, a pure lambda calculus with the leftmost outermost rewriting strategy, considered under observational semantics, or extensions thereof, are an adequate model for semantic equivalences in real-world purely functional programming languages, in particular for a pure core language of Haskell. We explore several extensions of the lazy lambda calculus: addition of a seq-operator, addition of data constructors and case-expressions, and their combination, focusing on conservativity of these extensions. In addition to untyped calculi, we study their monomorphically and polymorphically typed versions. For most of the extensions we obtain non-conservativity which we prove by providing counterexamples. However, we prove conservativity of the extension by data constructors and case in the monomorphically typed scenario.

- A termination proof of reduction in a simply typed calculus with constructors (2010)
- The well-known proof of termination of reduction in simply typed calculi is adapted to a monomorphically typed lambda-calculus with case and constructors and recursive data types. The proof differs at several places from the standard proof. Perhaps it is useful and can be extended also to more complex calculi.