Year of publication
- Baryon number and electric charge fluctuations in Pb+Pb collisions at SPS energies (2006)
- Event-by-event fluctuations of the net baryon number and electric charge in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in Pb+Pb at SPS energies within the HSD transport model. We reveal an important role of the fluctuations in the number of target nucleon participants. They strongly influence all measured fluctuations even in the samples of events with rather rigid centrality trigger. This fact can be used to check different scenarios of nucleus-nucleus collisions by measuring the multiplicity fluctuations as a function of collision centrality in fixed kinematical regions of the projectile and target hemispheres. The HSD results for the event-by-event fluctuations of electric charge in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20, 30, 40, 80 and 158 A GeV are in a good agreement with the NA49 experimental data and considerably larger than expected in a quark-gluon plasma. This demonstrate that the distortions of the initial fluctuations by the hadronization phase and, in particular, by the final resonance decays dominate the observable fluctuations.
- Particle number fluctuations in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions from microscopic transport approaches (2005)
- Event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied within the HSD and UrQMD transport models. The scaled variances of negative, positive, and all charged hadrons in Pb+Pb at 158 AGeV are analyzed in comparison to the data from the NA49 Collaboration. We find a dominant role of the fluctuations in the nucleon participant number for the final hadron multiplicity fluctuations. This fact can be used to check di erent scenarios of nucleus-nucleus collisions by measuring the final multiplicity fluctuations as a function of collision centrality. The analysis reveals surprising e ects in the recent NA49 data which indicate a rather strong mixing of the projectile and target hadron production sources even in peripheral collisions. PACS numbers: 25.75.-q,25.75.Gz,24.60.-k
- Hadronic observables from SIS to SPS energies: anything strange with strangeness? (2002)
- We calculate p, ±,K± and (+ 0) rapidity distributions and compare to experimental data from SIS to SPS energies within the UrQMD and HSD transport approaches that are both based on string, quark, diquark (q, ¯q, qq, ¯q ¯q) and hadronic degrees of freedom. The two transport models do not include any explicit phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma (QGP). It is found that both approaches agree rather well with each other and with the experimental rapidity distributions for protons, s, ± and K±. In- spite of this apparent agreement both transport models fail to reproduce the maximum in the excitation function for the ratio K+/ + found experimen- tally between 11 and 40 A·GeV. A comparison to the various experimental data shows that this failure is dominantly due to an insu cient description of pion rapidity distributions rather than missing strangeness . The modest di erences in the transport model results on the other hand can be attributed to di erent implementations of string formation and frag- mentation, that are not su ciently controlled by experimental data for the elementary reactions in vacuum.
- Baryon stopping and strange baryon/antibaryon production at SPS energies (2002)
- The amount of proton stopping in central Pb+Pb collisions from 20 160 A·GeV as well as hyperon and antihyperon rapidity distributions are calcu- lated within the UrQMD model in comparison to experimental data at 40, 80 and 160 A·GeV taken recently from the NA49 collaboration. Further- more, the amount of baryon stopping at 160 A·GeV for Pb + Pb collisions is studied as a function of centrality in comparison to the NA49 data. We find that the strange baryon yield is reasonably described for central colli- sions, however, the rapidity distributions are somewhat more narrow than the data. Moreover, the experimental antihyperon rapidity distributions at 40, 80 and 160 A·GeV are underestimated by up to factors of 3 - depending on the annihilation cross section employed - which might be addressed to missing multi-meson fusion channels in the UrQMD model. PACS 25.75.+r
- Nucleus-nucleus collisions at high baryon densities (2002)
- We study central collision of Pb + Pb at 20, 40, 80 and 160 A·GeV within the UrQMD transport approach and compare rapidity distributions of ,K+,K and with the recent measurements from the NA49 Collaboration at 40, 80 and 160 A·GeV. It is found that the UrQMD model reasonably describes the data, however, systematically overpredicts the yield by < 20%, whereas the K+ yield is underestimated by < 15%. The K yields are in a good agreement with the experimental data, the yields are also in a reasonable correspondence with the data for all energies. We find that hadronic flavour exchange reactions largely distort the information about the initial strangeness production mechanism at all energies considered. PACS: 25.75.+r
- Kaons and antikaons in hot and dense hadronic matter (2004)
- Abstract: The medium modification of kaon and antikaon masses, compatible with low energy KN scattering data, are studied in a chiral SU(3) model. The mutual interactions with baryons in hot hadronic matter and the e ects from the baryonic Dirac sea on the K( ¯K ) masses are examined. The in-medium masses from the chiral SU(3) e ective model are compared to those from chiral perturbation theory. Furthermore, the influence of these in-medium e ects on kaon rapidity distributions and transverse energy spectra as well as the K, ¯K flow pattern in heavy-ion collision experiments at 1.5 to 2 A·GeV are investigated within the HSD transport approach. Detailed predictions on the transverse momentum and rapidity dependence of directed flow v1 and the elliptic flow v2 are provided for Ni+Ni at 1.93 A·GeV within the various models, that can be used to determine the in-medium K± properties from the experimental side in the near future.
- Dynamics of strange, charm and high momentum hadrons in relativistic nucleus nucleus collisions (2003)
- We investigate hadron production and attenuation of hadrons with strange and charm quarks (or antiquarks) as well as high transverse momentum hadrons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus col- lisions from 2 A·GeV to 21.3 A·TeV within two independent transport approaches (UrQMD and HSD). Both transport models are based on quark, diquark, string and hadronic degrees of freedom, but do not include any explicit phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma. From our dynamical calculations we find that both models do not describe the maximum in the K+/ + ratio at 20 - 30 A·GeV in central Au+Au collisions found experimentally, though the excitation functions of strange mesons are reproduced well in HSD and UrQMD. Furthermore, the transport calculations show that the charmonium recreation by D + J/ + meson reactions is comparable to the dissociation by comoving mesons at RHIC energies contrary to SPS energies. This leads to the final result that the total J/ suppression as a function of centrality at RHIC should be less than the suppression seen at SPS energies where the comover dissociation is substantial and the backward channels play no role. Furthermore, our transport calculations in comparison to exper- imental data on transverse momentum spectra from pp, d+Au and Au+Au reactions show that pre-hadronic e ects are responsible for both the hardening of the hadron spectra for low transverse momenta (Cronin e ect) as well as the suppression of high pT hadrons. The mutual interactions of formed hadrons are found to be negligible in central Au+Au collisions at s = 200 GeV for pT e 6 GeV/c and the sizeable suppression seen experimentally is attributed to a large extent to the interactions of leading pre-hadrons with the dense environment.
- Mass modification of D-meson in hot hadronic matter (2003)
- We evaluate the in-medium D and -meson masses in hot hadronic matter induced by interactions with the light hadron sector described in a chiral SU(3) model. The e ective Lagrangian approach is generalized to SU(4) to include charmed mesons. We find that the D-mass drops substantially at finite temperatures and densities, which open the channels of the decay of the charmonium states ( 2, c, J/ ) to D pairs in the thermal medium. The e ects of vacuum polarisations from the baryon sector on the medium modification of the D-meson mass relative to those obtained in the mean field approximation are investigated. The results of the present work are compared to calculations based on the QCD sum-rule approach, the quark-meson coupling model, chiral perturbation theory, as well as to studies of quarkonium dissociation using heavy quark potential from lattice QCD.
- Open charm and charmonium production at RHIC (2003)
- We calculate open charm and charmonium production in Au + Au reac- tions at ps = 200 GeV within the hadron-string dynamics (HSD) transport approach employing open charm cross sections from pN and N reactions that are fitted to results from PYTHIA and scaled in magnitude to the available experimental data. Charmonium dissociation with nucleons and formed mesons to open charm (D + ¯D pairs) is included dynamically. The comover dissociation cross sections are described by a simple phase-space model including a single free parameter, i.e. an interaction strength M2 0 , that is fitted to the J/ suppression data for Pb + Pb collisions at SPS energies. As a novel feature we implement the backward channels for char- monium reproduction by D ¯D channels employing detailed balance. From our dynamical calculations we find that the charmonium recreation is com- parable to the dissociation by comoving mesons. This leads to the final result that the total J/ suppression at ps = 200 GeV as a function of centrality is slightly less than the suppression seen at SPS energies by the NA50 Collaboration, where the comover dissociation is substantial and the backward channels play no role. Furthermore, even in case that all di- rectly produced J/ mesons dissociate immediately (or are not formed as a mesonic state), a sizeable amount of charmonia is found asymptotically due to the D + ! J/ + meson channels in central collisions of Au + Au at ps = 200 GeV which, however, is lower than the J/ yield expected from f pp collis ns.
- Charmonium chemistry in A+A collisions at relativistic energies (2005)
- Charmonium production and suppression in heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies is investigated within di erent models, i.e. the comover absorption model, the threshold suppression model, the statistical coalescence model and the HSD transport approach. In HSD the charmonium dissociation cross sections with mesons are described by a simple phase-space parametrization including an e ective coupling strength |Mi|2 for the charmonium states i =Xc,J/psi, psi'. This allows to include the backward channels for charmonium reproduction by DD channels which are missed in the comover absorption and threshold suppression model employing detailed balance without introducing any new parameters. It is found that all approaches yield a reasonable description of J/psi suppression in S+U and Pb+Pb collisions at SPS energies. However, they di er significantly in the psi'/J/psi ratio versus centrality at SPS and especially at RHIC energies. These pronounced differences can be exploited in future measurements at RHIC to distinguish the hadronic rescattering scenarios from quark coalescence close to the QGP phase boundary.