- Preprint (18) (remove)
- Baryon number and electric charge fluctuations in Pb+Pb collisions at SPS energies (2006)
- Event-by-event fluctuations of the net baryon number and electric charge in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in Pb+Pb at SPS energies within the HSD transport model. We reveal an important role of the fluctuations in the number of target nucleon participants. They strongly influence all measured fluctuations even in the samples of events with rather rigid centrality trigger. This fact can be used to check different scenarios of nucleus-nucleus collisions by measuring the multiplicity fluctuations as a function of collision centrality in fixed kinematical regions of the projectile and target hemispheres. The HSD results for the event-by-event fluctuations of electric charge in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20, 30, 40, 80 and 158 A GeV are in a good agreement with the NA49 experimental data and considerably larger than expected in a quark-gluon plasma. This demonstrate that the distortions of the initial fluctuations by the hadronization phase and, in particular, by the final resonance decays dominate the observable fluctuations.
- Baryon stopping and strange baryon/antibaryon production at SPS energies (2002)
- The amount of proton stopping in central Pb+Pb collisions from 20 160 A·GeV as well as hyperon and antihyperon rapidity distributions are calcu- lated within the UrQMD model in comparison to experimental data at 40, 80 and 160 A·GeV taken recently from the NA49 collaboration. Further- more, the amount of baryon stopping at 160 A·GeV for Pb + Pb collisions is studied as a function of centrality in comparison to the NA49 data. We find that the strange baryon yield is reasonably described for central colli- sions, however, the rapidity distributions are somewhat more narrow than the data. Moreover, the experimental antihyperon rapidity distributions at 40, 80 and 160 A·GeV are underestimated by up to factors of 3 - depending on the annihilation cross section employed - which might be addressed to missing multi-meson fusion channels in the UrQMD model. PACS 25.75.+r
- Charmonium chemistry in A+A collisions at relativistic energies (2005)
- Charmonium production and suppression in heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies is investigated within di erent models, i.e. the comover absorption model, the threshold suppression model, the statistical coalescence model and the HSD transport approach. In HSD the charmonium dissociation cross sections with mesons are described by a simple phase-space parametrization including an e ective coupling strength |Mi|2 for the charmonium states i =Xc,J/psi, psi'. This allows to include the backward channels for charmonium reproduction by DD channels which are missed in the comover absorption and threshold suppression model employing detailed balance without introducing any new parameters. It is found that all approaches yield a reasonable description of J/psi suppression in S+U and Pb+Pb collisions at SPS energies. However, they di er significantly in the psi'/J/psi ratio versus centrality at SPS and especially at RHIC energies. These pronounced differences can be exploited in future measurements at RHIC to distinguish the hadronic rescattering scenarios from quark coalescence close to the QGP phase boundary.
- Dynamics of strange, charm and high momentum hadrons in relativistic nucleus nucleus collisions (2003)
- We investigate hadron production and attenuation of hadrons with strange and charm quarks (or antiquarks) as well as high transverse momentum hadrons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus col- lisions from 2 A·GeV to 21.3 A·TeV within two independent transport approaches (UrQMD and HSD). Both transport models are based on quark, diquark, string and hadronic degrees of freedom, but do not include any explicit phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma. From our dynamical calculations we find that both models do not describe the maximum in the K+/ + ratio at 20 - 30 A·GeV in central Au+Au collisions found experimentally, though the excitation functions of strange mesons are reproduced well in HSD and UrQMD. Furthermore, the transport calculations show that the charmonium recreation by D + J/ + meson reactions is comparable to the dissociation by comoving mesons at RHIC energies contrary to SPS energies. This leads to the final result that the total J/ suppression as a function of centrality at RHIC should be less than the suppression seen at SPS energies where the comover dissociation is substantial and the backward channels play no role. Furthermore, our transport calculations in comparison to exper- imental data on transverse momentum spectra from pp, d+Au and Au+Au reactions show that pre-hadronic e ects are responsible for both the hardening of the hadron spectra for low transverse momenta (Cronin e ect) as well as the suppression of high pT hadrons. The mutual interactions of formed hadrons are found to be negligible in central Au+Au collisions at s = 200 GeV for pT e 6 GeV/c and the sizeable suppression seen experimentally is attributed to a large extent to the interactions of leading pre-hadrons with the dense environment.
- Evidence for nonhadronic degrees of freedom in the transverse mass spectra of kaons from relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions? (2003)
- We investigate transverse hadron spectra from relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions which reflect important aspects of the dynamics - such as the generation of pressure - in the hot and dense zone formed in the early phase of the reaction. Our analysis is performed within two independent transport approaches (HSD and UrQMD) that are based on quark, diquark, string and hadronic degrees of freedom. Both transport models show their reliability for elementary pp as well as light-ion (C+C, Si+Si) reactions. However, for central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions at bombarding energies above ~ 5 A.GeV the measured K+- transverse mass spectra have a larger inverse slope parameter than expected from the calculation. Thus the pressure generated by hadronic interactions in the transport models above ~ 5 A.GeV is lower than observed in the experimental data. This finding shows that the additional pressure - as expected from lattice QCD calculations at finite quark chemical potential and temperature - is generated by strong partonic interactions in the early phase of central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions.
- Exploring isospin, strangeness and charm distillation in heavy ion collisions (2003)
- The isospin and strangeness dimensions of the Equation of State are explored. RIA and the SIS200 accelerator at GSI will allow to explore these regions in compressed baryonic matter. 132 Sn + 132 Sn and 100 Sn + 100 Sn collisions as well as the excitation functions of K/pi, Lambda/pi and the centrality dependence of charmonium suppression from the UrQMD and HSD transport models are presented and compared to data. Unambiguous proof for the creation of a 'novel phase of matter' from strangeness and charm yields is not in sight.
- Hadronic observables from SIS to SPS energies: anything strange with strangeness? (2002)
- We calculate p, ±,K± and (+ 0) rapidity distributions and compare to experimental data from SIS to SPS energies within the UrQMD and HSD transport approaches that are both based on string, quark, diquark (q, ¯q, qq, ¯q ¯q) and hadronic degrees of freedom. The two transport models do not include any explicit phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma (QGP). It is found that both approaches agree rather well with each other and with the experimental rapidity distributions for protons, s, ± and K±. In- spite of this apparent agreement both transport models fail to reproduce the maximum in the excitation function for the ratio K+/ + found experimen- tally between 11 and 40 A·GeV. A comparison to the various experimental data shows that this failure is dominantly due to an insu cient description of pion rapidity distributions rather than missing strangeness . The modest di erences in the transport model results on the other hand can be attributed to di erent implementations of string formation and frag- mentation, that are not su ciently controlled by experimental data for the elementary reactions in vacuum.
- Kaons and antikaons in hot and dense hadronic matter (2004)
- Abstract: The medium modification of kaon and antikaon masses, compatible with low energy KN scattering data, are studied in a chiral SU(3) model. The mutual interactions with baryons in hot hadronic matter and the e ects from the baryonic Dirac sea on the K( ¯K ) masses are examined. The in-medium masses from the chiral SU(3) e ective model are compared to those from chiral perturbation theory. Furthermore, the influence of these in-medium e ects on kaon rapidity distributions and transverse energy spectra as well as the K, ¯K flow pattern in heavy-ion collision experiments at 1.5 to 2 A·GeV are investigated within the HSD transport approach. Detailed predictions on the transverse momentum and rapidity dependence of directed flow v1 and the elliptic flow v2 are provided for Ni+Ni at 1.93 A·GeV within the various models, that can be used to determine the in-medium K± properties from the experimental side in the near future.
- Mass modification of D-meson in hot hadronic matter (2003)
- We evaluate the in-medium D and -meson masses in hot hadronic matter induced by interactions with the light hadron sector described in a chiral SU(3) model. The e ective Lagrangian approach is generalized to SU(4) to include charmed mesons. We find that the D-mass drops substantially at finite temperatures and densities, which open the channels of the decay of the charmonium states ( 2, c, J/ ) to D pairs in the thermal medium. The e ects of vacuum polarisations from the baryon sector on the medium modification of the D-meson mass relative to those obtained in the mean field approximation are investigated. The results of the present work are compared to calculations based on the QCD sum-rule approach, the quark-meson coupling model, chiral perturbation theory, as well as to studies of quarkonium dissociation using heavy quark potential from lattice QCD.
- Nonequilibrium models of relativistic heavy-ion collisions (2004)
- To be published in J. Phys. G - Proceedings of SQM 2004 : We review the results from the various hydrodynamical and transport models on the collective flow observables from AGS to RHIC energies. A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 A.GeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the v2-flow ~ 10 A.GeV; at 40 A.GeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density r b. Moreover, the connection of the elliptic flow v2 to jet suppression is examined. It is proven experimentally that the collective flow is not faked by minijet fragmentation. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the away-side jet suppression can only partially (< 50%) be due to hadronic rescattering. Furthermore, the change in sign of v1, v2 closer to beam rapidity is related to the occurence of a high density first order phase transition in the RHIC data at 62.5, 130 and 200 A.GeV.