Year of publication
- Strongly interacting parton-hadron matter in- and out-off equilibrium (2014)
- We study the equilibrium properties of strongly-interacting infinite parton-hadron matter, characterized by the transport coefficients such as shear and bulk viscosity and electric conductivity, and the non-equilibrium dynamics of heavy-ion collisions within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach, which incorporates explicit partonic degrees of freedom in terms of strongly interacting quasiparticles (quarks and gluons) in line with an equation of state from lattice QCD as well as the dynamical hadronization and hadronic collision dynamics in the final reaction phase. We discuss in particular the possible origin for the strong elliptic flow v2 of direct photons observed at RHIC energies.
- Dynamical equilibration in strongly-interacting parton-hadron matter (2011)
- We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton-hadron matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach, which is based on a dynamical quasiparticle model for partons matched to reproduce lattice-QCD results – including the partonic equation of state – in thermodynamic equilibrium. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different baryon density (or chemical potential) and energy density. The transition from initially pure partonic matter to hadronic degrees of freedom (or vice versa) occurs dynamically by interactions. Different thermody-namical distributions of the strongly-interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) are addressed and discussed.
- Fluctuations and correlations from microscopic transport theory (2009)
- The multiplicity fluctuations in A+A collisions at SPS and RHIC energies are studied within the HSD transport approach. We find a dominant role of the fluctuations in the nucleon participant number for the final fluctuations. In order to extract physical fluctuations one should decrease the fluctuations in the participants number. This can be done considering very central collisions. The system size dependence of the multiplicity fluctuations in central A+A collisions at the SPS energy range – obtained in the HSD and UrQMD transport models – is presented. The results can be used as a ‘background’ for experimental measurements of fluctuations as a signal of the critical point. Event-by-event fluctuations of the K/p , K/p and p/p ratios in A+A collisions are also studied. Event-by-event fluctuations of the kaon to pion number ratio in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied for SPS and RHIC energies. We find that the HSD model can qualitatively reproduce the measured excitation function for the K/p ratio fluctuations in central Au+Au (or Pb+Pb) collisions from low SPS up to top RHIC energies. The forward-backward correlation coefficient measured by the STAR Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at RHIC is also studied. We discuss the effects of initial collision geometry and centrality bin definition on correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. We argue that a study of the dependence of correlations on the centrality bin definition as well as the bin size may distinguish between these ‘trivial’ correlations and correlations arising from ‘new physics’. 5th International Workshop on Critical Point and Onset of Deconfinement - CPOD 2009, June 08 - 12 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, New York, USA
- Charmed signatures for phase transitions in heavy-ion collisions (2007)
- The interplay of charmonium production and suppression in In+In and Pb+Pb reactions at 158 AGeV and in Au+Au reactions at sqrt(s)=200 GeV is investigated with the HSD transport approach within the hadronic comover model' and the QGP melting scenario'. The results for the J/Psi suppression and the Psi' to J/Psi ratio are compared to the recent data of the NA50, NA60, and PHENIX Collaborations. We find that, at 158 AGeV, the comover absorption model performs better than the scenario of abrupt threshold melting. However, neither interaction with hadrons alone nor simple color screening satisfactory describes the data at sqrt(s)=200 GeV. A deconfined phase is clearly reached at RHIC, but a theory having the relevant degrees of freedom in this regime (strongly interacting quarks/gluons) is needed to study its transport properties.
- Baryon number and electric charge fluctuations in Pb+Pb collisions at SPS energies (2006)
- Event-by-event fluctuations of the net baryon number and electric charge in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in Pb+Pb at SPS energies within the HSD transport model. We reveal an important role of the fluctuations in the number of target nucleon participants. They strongly influence all measured fluctuations even in the samples of events with rather rigid centrality trigger. This fact can be used to check different scenarios of nucleus-nucleus collisions by measuring the multiplicity fluctuations as a function of collision centrality in fixed kinematical regions of the projectile and target hemispheres. The HSD results for the event-by-event fluctuations of electric charge in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20, 30, 40, 80 and 158 A GeV are in a good agreement with the NA49 experimental data and considerably larger than expected in a quark-gluon plasma. This demonstrate that the distortions of the initial fluctuations by the hadronization phase and, in particular, by the final resonance decays dominate the observable fluctuations.
- Particle number fluctuations in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions from microscopic transport approaches (2005)
- Event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied within the HSD and UrQMD transport models. The scaled variances of negative, positive, and all charged hadrons in Pb+Pb at 158 AGeV are analyzed in comparison to the data from the NA49 Collaboration. We find a dominant role of the fluctuations in the nucleon participant number for the final hadron multiplicity fluctuations. This fact can be used to check di erent scenarios of nucleus-nucleus collisions by measuring the final multiplicity fluctuations as a function of collision centrality. The analysis reveals surprising e ects in the recent NA49 data which indicate a rather strong mixing of the projectile and target hadron production sources even in peripheral collisions. PACS numbers: 25.75.-q,25.75.Gz,24.60.-k
- Charmonium chemistry in A+A collisions at relativistic energies (2005)
- Charmonium production and suppression in heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies is investigated within di erent models, i.e. the comover absorption model, the threshold suppression model, the statistical coalescence model and the HSD transport approach. In HSD the charmonium dissociation cross sections with mesons are described by a simple phase-space parametrization including an e ective coupling strength |Mi|2 for the charmonium states i =Xc,J/psi, psi'. This allows to include the backward channels for charmonium reproduction by DD channels which are missed in the comover absorption and threshold suppression model employing detailed balance without introducing any new parameters. It is found that all approaches yield a reasonable description of J/psi suppression in S+U and Pb+Pb collisions at SPS energies. However, they di er significantly in the psi'/J/psi ratio versus centrality at SPS and especially at RHIC energies. These pronounced differences can be exploited in future measurements at RHIC to distinguish the hadronic rescattering scenarios from quark coalescence close to the QGP phase boundary.
- Collective flow of open and hidden charm in Au + Au collisions at s = 200-GeV (2005)
- We study the collective flow of open charm mesons and charmonia in Au + Au collisions at s = 200 GeV within the hadron-string-dynamics (HSD) transport approach. The detailed studies show that the coupling of D, mesons to the light hadrons leads to comparable directed and elliptic flow as for the light mesons. This also holds approximately for J/ mesons since more than 50% of the final charmonia for central and midcentral collisions stem from D + induced reactions in the transport calculations. The transverse momentum spectra of D, mesons and J/ s are only very moderately changed by the (pre-)hadronic interactions in HSD, which can be traced back to the collective flow generated by elastic interactions with the light hadrons. PACS-Nr. 25.75.-q, 13.60.Le, 14.40.Lb, 14.65.Dw
- Transverse pressure and strangeness dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion reactions (2005)
- Transverse hadron spectra from proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions from 2 AGeV to 21.3 ATeV are investigated within two independent transport approaches (HSD and UrQMD). For central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions at energies above E lab ~ 5 AGeV, the measured K +- transverse mass spectra have a larger inverse slope parameter than expected from the default calculations. The additional pressure - as suggested by lattice QCD calculations at finite quark chemical potential mu q and temperature T - might be generated by strong interactions in the early pre-hadronic/partonic phase of central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions. This is supported by a non-monotonic energy dependence of v2/pT in the present transport model.
- Kaons and antikaons in hot and dense hadronic matter (2004)
- Abstract: The medium modification of kaon and antikaon masses, compatible with low energy KN scattering data, are studied in a chiral SU(3) model. The mutual interactions with baryons in hot hadronic matter and the e ects from the baryonic Dirac sea on the K( ¯K ) masses are examined. The in-medium masses from the chiral SU(3) e ective model are compared to those from chiral perturbation theory. Furthermore, the influence of these in-medium e ects on kaon rapidity distributions and transverse energy spectra as well as the K, ¯K flow pattern in heavy-ion collision experiments at 1.5 to 2 A·GeV are investigated within the HSD transport approach. Detailed predictions on the transverse momentum and rapidity dependence of directed flow v1 and the elliptic flow v2 are provided for Ni+Ni at 1.93 A·GeV within the various models, that can be used to determine the in-medium K± properties from the experimental side in the near future.