- A novel cGUUAg tetraloop structure with a conserved yYNMGg-type backbone conformation from cloverleaf 1 of bovine enterovirus 1 RNA (2005)
- The 5'-terminal cloverleaf (CL)-like RNA structures are essential for the initiation of positive- and negative-strand RNA synthesis of entero- and rhinoviruses. SLD is the cognate RNA ligand of the viral proteinase 3C (3Cpro), which is an indispensable component of the viral replication initiation complex. The structure of an 18mer RNA representing the apical stem and the cGUUAg D-loop of SLD from the first 5'-CL of BEV1 was determined in solution to a root-mean-square deviation (r.m.s.d.) (all heavy atoms) of 0.59 A (PDB 1Z30). The first (antiG) and last (synA) nucleotide of the D-loop forms a novel ‘pseudo base pair’ without direct hydrogen bonds. The backbone conformation and the base-stacking pattern of the cGUUAg-loop, however, are highly similar to that of the coxsackieviral uCACGg D-loop (PDB 1RFR) and of the stable cUUCGg tetraloop (PDB 1F7Y) but surprisingly dissimilar to the structure of a cGUAAg stable tetraloop (PDB 1MSY), even though the cGUUAg BEV D-loop and the cGUAAg tetraloop differ by 1 nt only. Together with the presented binding data, these findings provide independent experimental evidence for our model [O. Ohlenschläger, J. Wöhnert, E. Bucci, S. Seitz, S. Häfner, R. Ramachandran, R. Zell and M. Görlach (2004) Structure, 12, 237–248] that the proteinase 3Cpro recognizes structure rather than sequence.
- NMR and MD studies of the temperature-dependent dynamics of RNA YNMG-tetraloops (2008)
- In a combined NMR/MD study, the temperature-dependent changes in the conformation of two members of the RNA YNMG-tetraloop motif (cUUCGg and uCACGg) have been investigated at temperatures of 298, 317 and 325 K. The two members have considerable different thermal stability and biological functions. In order to address these differences, the combined NMR/MD study was performed. The large temperature range represents a challenge for both, NMR relaxation analysis (consistent choice of effective bond length and CSA parameter) and all-atom MD simulation with explicit solvent (necessity to rescale the temperature). A convincing agreement of experiment and theory is found. Employing a principle component analysis of the MD trajectories, the conformational distribution of both hairpins at various temperatures is investigated. The ground state conformation and dynamics of the two tetraloops are indeed found to be very similar. Furthermore, both systems are initially destabilized by a loss of the stacking interactions between the first and the third nucleobase in the loop region. While the global fold is still preserved, this initiation of unfolding is already observed at 317 K for the uCACGg hairpin but at a significantly higher temperature for the cUUCGg hairpin.
- Cytosine ribose flexibility in DNA : a combined NMR 13C spin relaxation and molecular dynamics simulation study (2008)
- Using (13)C spin relaxation NMR in combination with molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, we characterized internal motions within double-stranded DNA on the pico- to nano-second time scale. We found that the C-H vectors in all cytosine ribose moieties within the Dickerson-Drew dodecamer (5´-CGCGAATTCGCG-3´) are subject to high amplitude motions, while the other nucleotides are essentially rigid. MD simulations showed that repuckering is a likely motional model for the cytosine ribose moiety. Repuckering occurs with a time constant of around 100 ps. Knowledge of DNA dynamics will contribute to our understanding of the recognition specificity of DNA-binding proteins such as cytosine methyltransferase.