- Intracellular peptide trafficking in yeast (2002)
- The mechanism of peptide transport has been studied on two different ABC transporters of S. cerevisiae. Thereby, the aim of this PhD thesis was to characterise the transporter function on molecular level and shed light on the physiological role of these transporters. The ABC gene YLL048 encodes a novel intracellular transporter translocating peptides from the cytosol to the lumen of the ER. Deletion of the gene resulted in loss of peptide transport activity. The transport activity was fully restored after transformation of the deletion mutant by plasmid-encoded YLL048. Studying the substrate specificity using randomized peptide libraries it was demonstrated that peptides of the size from 6 to 56 amino acids are recognized. So far, no upper limit of the substrate size was obtained. Introduction of D-amino acids in various positions of a nonamer peptide did not impair transport activity. The physiological function of YLL048p is not well understood. The gene product is not essential for cell viability as the deletion mutant did not show any growth phenotype. To examine the possibility that YLL048 encoded protein is part of a quality control of yeast cells involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR), upregulation of YLL048 transcription by heat shock and stress conditions were investigated. We could not observe an influence of stress factors on YLL048 mRNA level. Upregulation of gene expression by the transcription factors Pdr1p and Pdr3p was excluded. The ABC transporter Mdl1p has been identified as peptide transporter of the inner mitochondrial membrane. This protein is required for the export of peptides with the size of 6 to 21 amino acids from the matrix into the intermembrane space. These peptides are generated by m-AAA proteases degrading non-assembled or missfolded membrane proteins. In order to understand the transport mechanism in detail, Mdl1p was expressed in S. cerevisiae and E. coli. Partially enriched protein was reconstituted into liposomes and was active in ATP binding. The association of the NBDs has been described as a central step of the ATPase cycle of ABC transporters, but it is still controversial how both motor domains cooperate and coordinate ATP hydrolysis. To address this question, the Mdl1p-NBD was overexpressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The isolated NBD was active in ATP binding and hydrolysis with a turnover of 0.5 ATP per min and a Km value of 0.2 mM. Isolated NBDs did not show cooperativity in ATPase activity. However, the ATPase activity was observed to be non-linearly dependent on protein concentration suggesting the active form of this enzyme is not a monomer. Very importantly, for the first time an ATP-induced dimer was observed after trapping the NBD by ortho-vanadate or BeFx. The nucleotide composition of the trapped intermediate state was determined and two ADP molecules were simultaneously bound per dimer. An ATP-induced dimer of the ATPase inactive mutant (E559Q) was observed already in the absence of ATPase inhibitor. The E599Q dimer contained two ATP molecules in the absence of Mg2+ at 4°C. Prolonged incubation at 30°C in the presence of Mg2+ induced a stable dimer in which one ATP and ADP molecule were trapped at the same time. Based on these experiments, a new cycle for ATPase activity of ABC transporters was proposed. Binding of ATP to two NBD monomers induces dimerization. Both nucleotides are hydrolysed sequentially. During the hydrolysis cycle the nucleotides cannot be released from the dimer. After hydrolysis of two ATP molecules the domains dissociate and start a new cycle.