- Organic field-effect transistors with high-k dielectric (2011)
- This work deals with the use of dielectrics with high permeability, so-called high-k dielectrics in organic thin-film field-effect transistors (FETs). The central part was the preparation of the high-k dielectric and its implementation in transistors, in which organic semiconductors were used as active layer. A field-effect transistor can be used to measure the charge carrier mobility. Employing high-k dielectrics the carrier concentration in the active layer can be greatly increased. In this way, high charge carrier concentrations in organic layers can be achieved without chemical doping. As high-k dielectric strontium titanate (STO) was selected. It is also available as a niobium-doped and therefore conducting substrate material. Thus, one has an ideal substrate for the growth of the dielectric layer in conjunction with a substrate which acts as gate electrode. As the organic semiconductor the small molecules pentacene and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) were sublimated, as electrical contacts gold was used. As a key part of this work an ultra high vacuum chamber system was constructed for in situ preparation of field effect transistors. For the deposition of the organic thin films a molecular beam deposition chamber was built, including a manipulator and effusion cells as evaporation sources. For the preparation of the dielectric a sputtering chamber was set-up. Another chamber was used in conjunction with an effusion cell for the deposition of the gold contacts. For the structured deposition of the different layers in the devices a shadow mask system was implemented. Movable masks could be positioned by means of a wobble stick onto the sample carriers. The system thus allowed for the use of masks in all chambers. The different thin films required in the transistor structure were first individually prepared and characterized. For the characterization primarily X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy were used. The growth of pentacene was analyzed on aplha-AlO substrates. With X-ray diffraction the (00l) reflections of the thin film phase were observed. In growth studies of CuPc aplha-AlO and STO substrates were used. With X-ray diffraction the aplha-phase was detected. With increasing substrate temperature an increase in crystallinity, but also an increase in surface roughness was observed. The sputtering of STO as a high-k dielectric was studied and optimized. Simultaneously, a high deposition rate, a smooth film surface and good crystallinity of the layer were required. As the most important parameters the substrate temperature, pressure and sputtering power were identified. Argon and oxygen were employed as sputtering gases, as substrate MgO was used. The films showed in comparison to crystalline STO a distortion to larger lattice constants. The degree of distortion decreased with increasing chamber pressure, on the other hand, deposition rate decreased with increasing chamber pressure as well. By combining the individual deposition processes FETs in bottom-gate geometry were prepared. The first step was always sputtering of the STO dielectric on niobium-doped STO substrates. Subsequently, the electrodes and the organic layer were deposited. For comparison transistors on silicon substrates with silicon dioxide (SiO2) as the dielectric were prepared. To study the transistor properties a measurement setup was build. A dielectric constant of about 190 for the STO in the transistors was achieved. The transistors with CuPc as active layer showed p-type conduction behavior. The transistors with STO as dielectric had a much stronger response than those with SiO2. They reached mobilities of 2E-4 cm2/Vs at very low applied voltages of 3V. It could thus be demonstrated that STO is suitable as a dielectric for organic FETs, and that through the use of high-k dielectrics high charge carrier densities can be achieved.