Year of publication
- 2009 (2) (remove)
- Parkinson phenotype in aged PINK1-deficient mice is accompanied by progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in absence of neurodegeneration (2009)
- Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is an adult-onset movement disorder of largely unknown etiology. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations of the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1) cause the recessive PARK6 variant of PD. Methodology/Principal Findings Now we generated a PINK1 deficient mouse and observed several novel phenotypes: A progressive reduction of weight and of locomotor activity selectively for spontaneous movements occurred at old age. As in PD, abnormal dopamine levels in the aged nigrostriatal projection accompanied the reduced movements. Possibly in line with the PARK6 syndrome but in contrast to sporadic PD, a reduced lifespan, dysfunction of brainstem and sympathetic nerves, visible aggregates of alpha-synuclein within Lewy bodies or nigrostriatal neurodegeneration were not present in aged PINK1-deficient mice. However, we demonstrate PINK1 mutant mice to exhibit a progressive reduction in mitochondrial preprotein import correlating with defects of core mitochondrial functions like ATP-generation and respiration. In contrast to the strong effect of PINK1 on mitochondrial dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster and in spite of reduced expression of fission factor Mtp18, we show reduced fission and increased aggregation of mitochondria only under stress in PINK1-deficient mouse neurons. Conclusion Thus, aging Pink1 -/- mice show increasing mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in impaired neural activity similar to PD, in absence of overt neuronal death.
- The mitochondrial kinase PINK1, stress response and Parkinson’s disease (2009)
- Mitochondrial dysfunction is well documented in presymptomatic brain tissue with Parkinson's disease (PD). Identification of the autosomal recessive variant PARK6 caused by loss-of-function mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 provides an opportunity to dissect pathogenesis. Although PARK6 shows clinical differences to PD, the induction of alpha-synuclein "Lewy" pathology by PINK1-deficiency proves that mitochondrial pathomechanisms are relevant for old-age PD. Mitochondrial dysfunction is induced by PINK1 deficiency even in peripheral tissues unaffected by disease, consistent with the ubiquitous expression of PINK1. It remains unclear whether this dysfunction is due to PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of proteins inside or outside mitochondria. Although PINK1 deficiency affects the mitochondrial fission/fusion balance, cell stress is required in mammals to alter mitochondrial dynamics and provoke apoptosis. Clearance of damaged mitochondria depends on pathways including PINK1 and Parkin and is critical for postmitotic neurons with high energy demand and cumulative stress, providing a mechanistic concept for the tissue specificity of disease.