### Refine

- Multiplicity distribution of electron-positron pairs created by strong external fields (1992)
- We discuss the multiplicity distribution of electron-positron pairs created in the strong electromagnetic fields of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion transits. Based on nonperturbative expressions for the N-pair creation amplitudes, the Poisson distribution is derived by neglecting interference terms. The source of unitarity violation is identified in the vacuum-to-vacuum amplitude, and a perturbative expression for the mean number of pairs is given.

- Direct formation of quasimolecular 1s sigma vacancies in uranium-uranium collisions (1976)
- The direct (Coulomb) formation of electron vacancies in the 1sσ state of superheavy quasimolecules is investigated for the first time. Its dependence on the impact parameter, projectile energy, and its contribution from excitations into the continum and higher bound states are determined.

- Collective excitations of the QED vacuum (1993)
- Using relativistic Green’s-function techniques we examined single-electron excitations from the occupied Dirac sea in the presence of strong external fields. The energies of these excited states are determined taking into account the electron-electron interaction. We also evaluate relativistic transition strengths incorporating retardation, which represents a direct measure of correlation effects. The shifts in excitation energies are computed to be lower than 0.5%, while the correlated transition strengths never deviate by more than 10% from their bare values. A major conclusion is that we found no evidence for collectivity in the electron-positron field around heavy and superheavy nuclei.

- Internal pair formation following coulomb excitation of heavy nuclei (1976)
- Internal conversion of γ rays from Coulomb-excited nuclear levels cannot be neglected compared with the spontaneous and induced positron production in overcritical electric fields. It is shown that both processes are separable by their different distributions with respect to the ion angle and the positron energy.

- Self-energy correction to the hyperfine structure splitting of hydrogenlike atoms (1996)
- A first testing ground for QED in the combined presence of a strong Coulomb field and a strong magnetic field is provided by the precise measurement of the hyperfine structure splitting of hydrogenlike 209Bi. We present a complete calculation of the one-loop self-energy correction to the first-order hyperfine interaction for various nuclear charges. In the low-Z regime we almost perfectly agree with the Z alpha expansion, but for medium and high Z there is a substantial deviation.

- Nuclear polarization in heavy atoms and superheavy quasiatoms (1991)
- We consider the contribution of nuclear polarization to the Lamb shift of K- and L-shell electrons in heavy atoms and quasiatoms. Our formal approach is based on the concept of effective photon propagators with nuclear-polarization insertions treating effects of nuclear polarization on the same footing as usual QED radiative corrections. We explicitly derive the modification of the photon propagator for various collective nuclear excitations and calculate the corresponding effective self-energy shift perturbatively. The energy shift of the 1s1/2 state in 92238U due to virtual excitation of nuclear rotational states is shown to be a considerable correction for atomic high-precision experiments. In contrast to this, nuclear-polarization effects are of minor importance for Lamb-shift studies in 82208Pb.

- Nuclear polarization contribution to the Lamb shift in heavy atoms (1989)
- The energy shift of the 1s1/2 state in 92238U due to virtual excitation of nuclear rotational modes is shown to be a considerable correction for atomic high-precision experiments. In contrast to this, nuclear polarization effects are of minor importance for Lamb-shift studies in 82208Pb.

- Ionization and pair creation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions (1993)
- Ionization, pair creation, and electron excitations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are investigated in the framework of the coupled-channel formalism. Collisions between heavy projectiles and Pb82+ are considered for various bombarding energies in the region E=500 up to 2000 MeV/u. Useful symmetry relations for the matrix elements are derived and the influence of gauge transformations onto the coupled-channel equations is explored.

- Delbrück scattering in a strong external field (1992)
- We evaluate the Delbrück scattering amplitude to all orders of the interaction with the external field of a nucleus employing nonperturbative electron Green's functions. The results are given analytically in form of a multipole expansion.

- Monoenergetic positron conversion in heavy ion fragments (1986)
- Conversion processes in light nuclei with transition energies above the e+, e- pair creation threshold are investigated within an analytical framework. In particular, we evaluate the ratio of electron transition probabilities from the negative energy continuum into the atomic K shell and into the positive energy continuum, respectively. The possible role of monoenergetic positron conversion with respect to the striking peak structures observed in e+ spectra from very heavy collision systems is examined.