- Pseudoreceptor-based pocket selection in a molecular dynamics simulation of the histamine H4 receptor (2009)
- There is a renewed interest in pseudoreceptor models which enable computational chemists to bridge the gap of ligand- and receptor-based drug design . We developed a pseudoreceptor model for the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) based on five potent antagonists representing different chemotypes. Here we present the selection of potential ligand binding pockets that occur during molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a homology-based receptor model. We present a method for prioritizing receptor models according to their match with the consensus ligand-binding mode represented by the pseudoreceptor. In this way, ligand information can be transferred to receptor-based modelling. We use Geometric Hashing to match three-dimensional points in Cartesion space . This allows for the rapid translation- and rotation-free comparison of atom coordinates, which also permits partial matching. The only prerequisite is a hash table, which uses distance triplets as hash keys. Each time a distance triplet occurring in the candidate point set which corresponds to an existing key, the match is represented by a vote of the respective key. Finally, the global match of both point sets can be easily extracted by selection of voted distance triplets. The results revealed a preferred ligand-binding pocket in H4R, which would not have been identified using an unrefined homology model of the protein. The key idea was to rely on ligand information by pseudoreceptor modelling.
- Inhibitors of Helicobacter pylori protease HtrA found by "virtual ligand" screening combat bacterial invasion of epithelia (2011)
- Background: The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a main cause for gastric inflammation and cancer. Increasing bacterial resistance against antibiotics demands for innovative strategies for therapeutic intervention. Methodology/Principal Findings: We present a method for structure-based virtual screening that is based on the comprehensive prediction of ligand binding sites on a protein model and automated construction of a ligand-receptor interaction map. Pharmacophoric features of the map are clustered and transformed in a correlation vector (‘virtual ligand’) for rapid virtual screening of compound databases. This computer-based technique was validated for 18 different targets of pharmaceutical interest in a retrospective screening experiment. Prospective screening for inhibitory agents was performed for the protease HtrA from the human pathogen H. pylori using a homology model of the target protein. Among 22 tested compounds six block E-cadherin cleavage by HtrA in vitro and result in reduced scattering and wound healing of gastric epithelial cells, thereby preventing bacterial infiltration of the epithelium. Conclusions/Significance: This study demonstrates that receptor-based virtual screening with a permissive (‘fuzzy’) pharmacophore model can help identify small bioactive agents for combating bacterial infection.
- Spherical harmonics coeffcients for ligand-based virtual screening of cyclooxygenase inhibitors (2011)
- Background: Molecular descriptors are essential for many applications in computational chemistry, such as ligand-based similarity searching. Spherical harmonics have previously been suggested as comprehensive descriptors of molecular structure and properties. We investigate a spherical harmonics descriptor for shape-based virtual screening. Methodology/Principal Findings: We introduce and validate a partially rotation-invariant three-dimensional molecular shape descriptor based on the norm of spherical harmonics expansion coefficients. Using this molecular representation, we parameterize molecular surfaces, i.e., isosurfaces of spatial molecular property distributions. We validate the shape descriptor in a comprehensive retrospective virtual screening experiment. In a prospective study, we virtually screen a large compound library for cyclooxygenase inhibitors, using a self-organizing map as a pre-filter and the shape descriptor for candidate prioritization. Conclusions/Significance: 12 compounds were tested in vitro for direct enzyme inhibition and in a whole blood assay. Active compounds containing a triazole scaffold were identified as direct cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. This outcome corroborates the usefulness of spherical harmonics for representation of molecular shape in virtual screening of large compound collections. The combination of pharmacophore and shape-based filtering of screening candidates proved to be a straightforward approach to finding novel bioactive chemotypes with minimal experimental effort.