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- Kern-Kern-Streuung (1) (remove)

- An integrated Boltzmann + hydrodynamics approach to heavy ion collisions (2009)
- In this thesis the first fully integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to relativistic heavy ion reactions has been developed. After a short introduction that motivates the study of heavy ion reactions as the tool to get insights about the QCD phase diagram, the most important theoretical approaches to describe the system are reviewed. To model the dynamical evolution of the collective system assuming local thermal equilibrium ideal hydrodynamics seems to be a good tool. Nowadays, the development of either viscous hydrodynamic codes or hybrid approaches is favoured. For the microscopic description of the hadronic as well as the partonic stage of the evolution transport approaches have beeen successfully applied, since they generate the full phse-space dynamics of all the particles. The hadron-string transport approach that this work is based on is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach. It constitutes an effective solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation and is restricted to binary collisions of the propagated hadrons. Therefore, the Boltzmann equation and the basic assumptions of this model are introduced. Furthermore, predictions for the charged particle multiplicities at LHC energies are made. The next step is the development of a new framework to calculate the baryon number density in a transport approach. Time evolutions of the net baryon number and the quark density have been calculated at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies and the new approach leads to reasonable results over the whole energy range. Studies of phase diagram trajectories using hydrodynamics are performed as a first move into the direction of the development of the hybrid approach. The hybrid approach that has been developed as the main part of this thesis is based on the UrQMD transport approach with an intermediate hydrodynamical evolution for the hot and dense stage of the collision. The initial energy and baryon number density distributions are not smooth and not symmetric in any direction and the initial velocity profiles are non-trivial since they are generated by the non-equilibrium transport approach. The fulll (3+1) dimensional ideal relativistic one fluid dynamics evolution is solved using the SHASTA algorithm. For the present work, three different equations of state have been used, namely a hadron gas equation of state without a QGP phase transition, a chiral EoS and a bag model EoS including a strong first order phase transition. For the freeze-out transition from hydrodynamics to the cascade calculation two different set-ups are employed. Either an in the computational frame isochronous freeze-out or an gradual freeze-out that mimics an iso-eigentime criterion. The particle vectors are generated by Monte Carlo methods according to the Cooper-Frye formula and UrQMD takes care of the final decoupling procedure of the particles. The parameter dependences of the model are investigated and the time evolution of different quantities is explored. The final pion and proton multiplicities are lower in the hybrid model calculation due to the isentropic hydrodynamic expansion while the yields for strange particles are enhanced due to the local equilibrium in the hydrodynamic evolution. The elliptic flow values at SPS energies are shown to be in line with an ideal hydrodynamic evolution if a proper initial state is used and the final freeze-out proceeds gradually. The hybrid model calculation is able to reproduce the experimentally measured integrated as well as transverse momentum dependent $v_2$ values for charged particles. The multiplicity and mean transverse mass excitation function is calculated for pions, protons and kaons in the energy range from $E_{\rm lab}=2-160A~$GeV. It is observed that the different freeze-out procedures have almost as much influence on the mean transverse mass excitation function as the equation of state. The experimentally observed step-like behaviour of the mean transverse mass excitation function is only reproduced, if a first order phase transition with a large latent heat is applied or the EoS is effectively softened due to non-equilibrium effects in the hadronic transport calculation. The HBT correlation of the negatively charged pion source created in central Pb+Pb collisions at SPS energies are investigated with the hybrid model. It has been found that the latent heat influences the emission of particles visibly and hence the HBT radii of the pion source. The final hadronic interactions after the hydrodynamic freeze-out are very important for the HBT correlation since a large amount of collisions and decays still takes place during this period.