- The choice of the intravenous fluid influences the tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia in anesthetized domestic pigs (2012)
- The correction of hypovolemia with acellular fluids results in acute normovolemic anemia. Whether the choice of the infusion fluid has an impact on the maintenance of oxygen (O2) supply during acute normovolemic anemia has not been investigated so far. Methods: Thirty-six anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs were hemodiluted to their physiological limit of anemia tolerance, reflected by the individual critical hemoglobin concentration (Hbcrit). Hbcrit was defined as the Hb-concentration corresponding with the onset of supply-dependency of total body O2-consumption (VO2). The hemodilution protocol was randomly performed with either Tetrastarch (6% HES 130/0.4, TS-group, n=9), Gelatin (3.5% urea-crosslinked polygeline, GEL-group, n=9), Hetastarch (6% HES 450/0.7, HS-group, n=9) or Ringer's solution (RS-group, n=9). The primary endpoint was the dimension of Hbcrit, secondary endpoints were parameters of central hemodynamics, O2-transport and tissue oxygenation. Results: In each animal, normovolemia was maintained throughout the protocol. Hbcrit was met at 3.7+/-0.6 g/dl (RS), 3.0+/-0.6 g/dl (HS P<0.05 vs. RS), 2.7+/-0.6 g/dl (GEL, P<0.05 vs. RS) and 2.1+/-0.4 g/dl (TS, P<0.05 vs. GEL, HS and RS). Hemodilution with RS resulted in a significant increase of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and a decrease of arterial oxygen partial pressure (paO2), O2-extraction ratio was increased, when animals of the TS-, GEL- and HS-groups met their individual Hbcrit. Conclusions: The choice of the intravenous (i.v) fluid has an impact on the tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia induced by acellular volume replacement. Third-generation Tetrastarch preparations (e.g., HES 130/0.4) appear most advantageous regarding maintenance of tissue oxygenation during progressive anemia. The underlying mechanism includes a lower degree of extravasation and favourable effects on microcirculatory function.
- Hyperoxia reversibly alters oxygen consumption and metabolism (2012)
- Aim: Ventilation with pure oxygen (hyperoxic ventilation: HV) is thought to decrease whole body oxygen consumption (VO(2)). However, the validity and impact of this phenomenon remain ambiguous; until now, under hyperoxic conditions, VO(2) has only been determined by the reverse Fick principle, a method with inherent methodological problems. The goal of this study was to determine changes of VO(2), carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)), and the respiratory quotient (RQ) during normoxic and hyperoxic ventilation, using a metabolic monitor. Methods: After providing signed informed consent and institutional acceptance, 14 healthy volunteers were asked to sequentially breathe room air, pure oxygen, and room air again. VO(2), VCO(2), RQ, and energy expenditure (EE) were determined by indirect calorimetry using a modified metabolic monitor during HV. Results: HV reduced VO(2) from 3.4 (3.0/4.0) mL/kg/min to 2.8 (2.5/3.6) mL/kg/min (P < 0.05), whereas VCO(2) remained constant (3.0 [2.6/3.6] mL/kg/min versus 3.0 [2.6/3.5] mL/kg/min, n.s.). After onset of HV, RQ increased from 0.9 (0.8/0.9) to 1.1 (1.0/1.1). Most changes during HV were immediately reversed during subsequent normoxic ventilation. Conclusion: HV not only reduces VO(2), but also increases the respiratory quotient. This might be interpreted as an indicator of the substantial metabolic changes induced by HV. However, the impact of this phenomenon requires further study.