- Functional and structural studies on the Atmungsferment Cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans (2008)
- Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), also called Complex IV of the aerobic respiratory chain, is located in the plasma membrane of prokaryotes and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes. The redox energy of dioxygen reduction is used to translocate protons across the membrane resulting in an electrochemical proton gradient. The generated proton gradient is exploited by the adenosine-5’-triphosphate synthase. In this work, bacterial four-subunit aa3-Type CcO from Paracoccus denitrificans (ATCC 13543, 4 SU-wt ATCC CcO) was used for analyses. 1) The recombinant homologously produced 4 SU-wt CcO (4 SU-wt rec CcO) was functionally compared with the native 4 SU-wt ATCC CcO. The 4 SU-wt rec CcO showed functional deficiencies as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. Total X-ray Reflection Fluorescence measurements show in both wild type CcOs the same ratio of the redoxactive Fe and Cu (2 Fe : 3 Cu) indicating full complement of the functional metals. If CcO contains only subunit I and II, it loses its functional integrity during continuous turnover activity. The importance of subunit III for integrity of CcO was demonstrated using 2 SU-wt rec CcO. Crystallisation trials of suicide inactivated 2 SU-wt rec CcOs have been ineffective using standard crystallisation conditions. Crystals of active 2 SU-wt rec CcO (positive control) have been obtained under these conditions and this result indicates possible structural changes in suicide inactivated 2 SU-wt rec CcO. The structure of active 2 SU-wt rec CcO was determined to 2.25 Å resolution. 2) Terminal oxidases require four electrons for the cleavage of the dioxygen bond (O=O). In general, the catalytic cycle of CcO is described by the electron input and thus by the different redox states of the metal centres: the O, E, R, P and F state. The two-electron reduced R intermediate is able to donate four electrons for dioxygen reduction forming the P state. The P intermediate is an oxoferryl state implying the lack of an electron for the R -> P transition, because the metal centres can only provide three electrons (Fe+II forms Fe+IV and Cu+II forms Cu+I). The P state, where the dioxygen bond is already broken, shows an oxoferryl state (FeIV=O2-) and a nearby tyrosine is proposed to form a tyrosyl radical representing the donor of the missing electron. H2O2-induced artificial intermediates provide the opportunity to investigated different catalytic intermediates in detail. Mixing equimolar amounts of H2O2 to CcO in the O state induces the "two-electron" reduced PH state at high pH and the electronically equal "two-electron" reduced F• H state at low pH. The addition of an excess amount of H2O2 leads to the three-electron reduced FH state. Functional studies using the 4 SU-wt ATCC CcO have demonstrated a bound peroxide (O- - O-) intermediate during the catalytic cycle. Using EPR it was previously shown that Y167 hosts a radical species in PH/F• H state which suggests that Y167 could provide this "missing electron". While X-ray structural models of CcO and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) measurements of oxygenated ("pulsed") 4 SU-wt ATCC CcO suggest a bound peroxide in the O state, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopic studies indicate that other intermediates may also contain such peroxide species. Equimolar and excess amounts of H2O2 induce the PH/F• H and FH states, respectively and catalase treatment of the FH state leads, contrary to the natural direction of the catalytic cycle, to the apparent transition of the FH -> PH/F• H states, which is accompanied by reappearance of an EPR signal from the Y167• radical. The novel PFH/F• FH states are presented here and we postulate that the FH state hosts a superoxide (or peroxide) adduct at CuB in the binuclear site. In addition, the novel P10 state is also introduced having a maximum at lambda = 612 nm in the difference absorption spectrum (minus the O state). The P10 state is induced by mixing CcO in the O state with a pH 10 buffer. This pH 10 induced state resembles standard P states such as PCO, PH and PR. However, the P10 state evolves out of the O state without addition of reduction equivalents. Using EPR spectroscopy it was shown that Y167 hosts a radical species in the P10 state such as in the PH state. In summary, all functional data presented here provide evidence for a peroxide bound during the O state. Finally, a new model for the natural catalytic cycle is proposed. If the O state contains a peroxide, it is also likely that the E and R state contain this species. Even the oxoferryl intermediates P and F states may complex a peroxide at CuB in the binuclear site. 3) The amino acid residue Y167, which hosts the radical in the PH/F•H states, is not directly part of the binuclear site of CcO. For identification of the primary electron donor, two tryptophan variants of CcO, W272F and W164F, which are located nearby the binuclear site, were produced. Evidence is provided that W272 is a kinetically fast electron donor for the O2 molecule. The electron is replenished by Y167, or probably by Y280 in the natural cycle. The Y167 radical is detectable by EPR spectroscopy after treatment with equimolar amounts of H2O2 in the active variant W164F, but is absent in the inactive variant W272F. 4) CcO contains two proton conducting pathways, the D- and the K-pathway. Proteoliposomes of the variants H28A and D30N, mutations located at the entrance of the D-pathway, both show the identical proton pumping activity as the 4 SU-wt rec CcO (pumped H+/e- = 1). The variant N113D shows abolished proton pumping (pumped H+/e- = 0), but a relative high cytochrome c oxidation activity (63 %). G196D displays no cytochrome c oxidation and proton pumping activity. Overall, the addition or removal of a negative charge within the D-pathway such as in D124N, N131D, N113D and G196D leads to a decoupled phenotype indicating the high degree of electrostatic coupling in CcO.
- Eukaryotic LYR proteins interact with mitochondrial protein complexes (2015)
- In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria host ancient essential bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways. LYR (leucine/tyrosine/arginine) motif proteins (LYRMs) of the Complex1_LYR-like superfamily interact with protein complexes of bacterial origin. Many LYR proteins function as extra subunits (LYRM3 and LYRM6) or novel assembly factors (LYRM7, LYRM8, ACN9 and FMC1) of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) core complexes. Structural insights into complex I accessory subunits LYRM6 and LYRM3 have been provided by analyses of EM and X-ray structures of complex I from bovine and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, respectively. Combined structural and biochemical studies revealed that LYRM6 resides at the matrix arm close to the ubiquinone reduction site. For LYRM3, a position at the distal proton-pumping membrane arm facing the matrix space is suggested. Both LYRMs are supposed to anchor an acyl-carrier protein (ACPM) independently to complex I. The function of this duplicated protein interaction of ACPM with respiratory complex I is still unknown. Analysis of protein-protein interaction screens, genetic analyses and predicted multi-domain LYRMs offer further clues on an interaction network and adaptor-like function of LYR proteins in mitochondria.