- Pro-inflammatory signaling by IL-10 and IL-22: bad habit stirred up by interferons? (2013)
- Interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-22 are key members of the IL-10 cytokine family that share characteristic properties such as defined structural features, usage of IL-10R2 as one receptor chain, and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 as dominant signaling mode. IL-10, formerly known as cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, is key to deactivation of monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Accordingly, pre-clinical studies document its anti-inflammatory capacity. However, the outcome of clinical trials assessing the therapeutic potential of IL-10 in prototypic inflammatory disorders has been disappointing. In contrast to IL-10, IL-22 acts primarily on non-leukocytic cells, in particular epithelial cells of intestine, skin, liver, and lung. STAT3-driven proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-microbial tissue protection is regarded a principal function of IL-22 at host/environment interfaces. In this hypothesis article, hidden/underappreciated pro-inflammatory characteristics of IL-10 and IL-22 are outlined and related to cellular priming by type I interferon. It is tempting to speculate that an inherent inflammatory potential of IL-10 and IL-22 confines their usage in tissue protective therapy and beyond that determines in some patients efficacy of type I interferon treatment.
- IL-2 stimulated but not unstimulated NK cells induce selective disappearance of peripheral blood cells: concomitant results to a phase I/II study (2011)
- In an ongoing clinical phase I/II study, 16 pediatric patients suffering from high risk leukemia/tumors received highly purified donor natural killer (NK) cell immunotherapy (NK-DLI) at day (+3) +40 and +100 post haploidentical stem cell transplantation. However, literature about the influence of NK-DLI on recipient's immune system is scarce. Here we present concomitant results of a noninvasive in vivo monitoring approach of recipient's peripheral blood (PB) cells after transfer of either unstimulated (NK-DLI(unstim)) or IL-2 (1000 U/ml, 9–14 days) activated NK cells (NK-DLI(IL-2 stim)) along with their ex vivo secreted cytokine/chemokines. We performed phenotypical and functional characterizations of the NK-DLIs, detailed flow cytometric analyses of various PB cells and comprehensive cytokine/chemokine arrays before and after NK-DLI. Patients of both groups were comparable with regard to remission status, immune reconstitution, donor chimerism, KIR mismatching, stem cell and NK-DLI dose. Only after NK-DLI(IL-2 stim) was a rapid, almost complete loss of CD56(bright)CD16(dim/−) immune regulatory and CD56(dim)CD16(+) cytotoxic NK cells, monocytes, dendritic cells and eosinophils from PB circulation seen 10 min after infusion, while neutrophils significantly increased. The reduction of NK cells was due to both, a decrease in patients' own CD69(−) NCR(low)CD62L(+) NK cells as well as to a diminishing of the transferred cells from the NK-DLI(IL-2 stim) with the CD56(bright)CD16(+/−)CD69(+)NCR(high)CD62L(−) phenotype. All cell counts recovered within the next 24 h. Transfer of NK-DLI(IL-2 stim) translated into significantly increased levels of various cytokines/chemokines (i.e. IFN-γ, IL-6, MIP-1β) in patients' PB. Those remained stable for at least 1 h, presumably leading to endothelial activation, leukocyte adhesion and/or extravasation. In contrast, NK-DLI(unstim) did not cause any of the observed effects. In conclusion, we assume that the adoptive transfer of NK-DLI(IL-2 stim) under the influence of ex vivo and in vivo secreted cytokines/chemokines may promote NK cell trafficking and therefore might enhance efficacy of immunotherapy.
- Activation of interferon regulatory factor-3 via toll-like receptor 3 and immunomodulatory functions detected in A549 lung epithelial cells exposed to misplaced U1-snRNA (2009)
- U1-snRNA is an integral part of the U1 ribonucleoprotein pivotal for pre-mRNA splicing. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling has recently been associated with immunoregulatory capacities of U1-snRNA. Using lung A549 epithelial/carcinoma cells, we report for the first time on interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 activation initiated by endosomally delivered U1-snRNA. This was associated with expression of the IRF3-inducible genes interferon-b (IFN-b), CXCL10/IP-10 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Mutational analysis of the U1-snRNA-activated IFN-b promoter confirmed the crucial role of the PRDIII element, previously proven pivotal for promoter activation by IRF3. Notably, expression of these parameters was suppressed by bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification, implicating endosomal TLR activation. Since resiquimod, an agonist of TLR7/8, failed to stimulate A549 cells, data suggest TLR3 to be of prime relevance for cellular activation. To assess the overall regulatory potential of U1-snRNA-activated epithelial cells on cytokine production, co-cultivation with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was performed. Interestingly, A549 cells activated by U1-snRNA reinforced phytohemagglutinin-induced interleukin-10 release by PBMC but suppressed that of tumor necrosis factor-a, indicating an antiinflammatory potential of U1-snRNA. Since U1-snRNA is enriched in apoptotic bodies and epithelial cells are capable of performing efferocytosis, the present data in particular connect to immunobiological aspects of apoptosis at host/environment interfaces.
- IFN-gamma impairs release of IL-8 by IL-1beta-stimulated A549 lung carcinoma cells (2008)
- Background Production of interferon (IFN)-gamma is key to efficient anti-tumor immunity. The present study was set out to investigate effects of IFNgamma on the release of the potent pro-angiogenic mediator IL-8 by human A549 lung carcinoma cells. Methods A549 cells were cultured and stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1beta alone or in combination with IFNgamma. IL-8 production by these cells was analyzed with enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). mRNA-expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and RNase protection assay (RPA), respectively. Expression of inhibitor-kappaBalpha, cellular IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results Here we demonstrate that IFNgamma efficiently reduced IL-8 secretion under the influence of IL-1beta. Surprisingly, real-time PCR analysis and RPA revealed that the inhibitory effect of IFNgamma on IL-8 was not associated with significant changes in mRNA levels. These observations concurred with lack of a modulatory activity of IFNgamma on IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB activation as assessed by cellular IkappaB levels. Moreover, analysis of intracellular IL-8 suggests that IFNgamma modulated IL-8 secretion by action on the posttranslational level. In contrast to IL-8, IL-1beta-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and release of IL-6 were not affected by IFNgamma indicating that modulation of IL-1beta action by this cytokine displays specificity. Conclusions Data presented herein agree with an angiostatic role of IFNgamma as seen in rodent models of solid tumors and suggest that increasing T helper type 1 (Th1)-like functions in lung cancer patients e.g. by local delivery of IFNgamma may mediate therapeutic benefit via mechanisms that potentially include modulation of pro-angiogenic IL-8.
- Interleukin-22 predicts severity and death in advanced liver cirrhosis: a prospective cohort study (2012)
- Background: Interleukin-22 (IL-22), recently identified as a crucial parameter of pathology in experimental liver damage, may determine survival in clinical end-stage liver disease. Systematic analysis of serum IL-22 in relation to morbidity and mortality of patients with advanced liver cirrhosis has not been performed so far. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study including 120 liver cirrhosis patients and 40 healthy donors to analyze systemic levels of IL-22 in relation to survival and hepatic complications. Results: A total of 71% of patients displayed liver cirrhosis-related complications at study inclusion. A total of 23% of the patients died during a mean follow-up of 196 +/- 165 days. Systemic IL-22 was detectable in 74% of patients but only in 10% of healthy donors (P <0.001). Elevated levels of IL-22 were associated with ascites (P = 0.006), hepatorenal syndrome (P <0.0001), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (P = 0.001). Patients with elevated IL-22 (>18 pg/ml, n = 57) showed significantly reduced survival compared to patients with regular ([less than or equal to]18 pg/ml) levels of IL-22 (321 days versus 526 days, P = 0.003). Other factors associated with overall survival were high CRP ([greater than or equal to]2.9 mg/dl, P = 0.005, hazard ratio (HR) 0.314, confidence interval (CI) (0.141 to 0.702)), elevated serum creatinine (P = 0.05, HR 0.453, CI (0.203 to 1.012)), presence of liver-related complications (P = 0.028, HR 0.258 CI (0.077 to 0.862)), model of end stage liver disease (MELD) score [greater than or equal to]20 (P = 0.017, HR 0.364, CI (0.159 to 0.835)) and age (P = 0.011, HR 1.047, CI (1.011 to 1.085)). Adjusted multivariate Cox proportional-hazards analysis identified elevated systemic IL-22 levels as independent predictors of reduced survival (P = 0.007, HR 0.218, CI (0.072 to 0.662)). Conclusions: In patients with liver cirrhosis, elevated systemic IL-22 levels are predictive for reduced survival independently from age, liver-related complications, CRP, creatinine and the MELD score. Thus, processes that lead to a rise in systemic interleukin-22 may be relevant for prognosis of advanced liver cirrhosis.
- Molecular mechanisms of IL-18BP regulation in DLD-1 cells: pivotal direct action of the STAT1/GAS axis on the promoter level (2009)
- Interleukin (IL)-18, formerly known as interferon (IFN)-γ-inducing factor, is a crucial mediator of host defence and inflammation. Control of IL-18 bioactivity by its endogenous antagonist IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) is a major objective of immunoregulation. IL-18BP is strongly up-regulated by IFN-γ, thereby establishing a negative feedback mechanism detectable in cell culture and in vivo. Here we sought to investigate in D.L. Dexter (DLD) colon carcinoma cells molecular mechanisms of IL-18BP induction under the influence of IFN-γ. Mutational analysis revealed that a proximal γ-activated sequence (GAS) at the IL-18BP promoter is of pivotal importance for expression by IFN-γ-activated cells. Use of siRNA underscored the essential role of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1 in this process. Indeed, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis proved STAT1 binding to this particular GAS site. Maximal expression of IL-18BP was dependent on de novo protein synthesis but unaffected by silencing of interferon regulatory factor-1. Altogether, data presented herein indicate that direct action of STAT1 on the IL-18BP promoter at the proximal GAS element is key to IL-18BP expression by IFN-γ-stimulated DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells.
- Early production of IL-22 but not IL-17 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to live Borrelia burgdorferi: the role of monocytes and interleukin-1 (2010)
- If insufficiently treated, Lyme borreliosis can evolve into an inflammatory disorder affecting skin, joints, and the CNS. Early innate immunity may determine host responses targeting infection. Thus, we sought to characterize the immediate cytokine storm associated with exposure of PBMC to moderate levels of live Borrelia burgdorferi. Since Th17 cytokines are connected to host defense against extracellular bacteria, we focused on interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22. Here, we report that, despite induction of inflammatory cytokines including IL-23, IL-17 remained barely detectable in response to B. burgdorferi. In contrast, T cell-dependent expression of IL-22 became evident within 10 h of exposure to the spirochetes. This dichotomy was unrelated to interferon-gamma but to a large part dependent on caspase-1 and IL-1 bioactivity derived from monocytes. In fact, IL-1beta as a single stimulus induced IL-22 but not IL-17. Neutrophils display antibacterial activity against B. burgdorferi, particularly when opsonized by antibodies. Since neutrophilic inflammation, indicative of IL-17 bioactivity, is scarcely observed in Erythema migrans, a manifestation of skin inflammation after infection, protective and antibacterial properties of IL-22 may close this gap and serve essential functions in the initial phase of spirochete infection.
- IL-27 Regulates IL-18 binding protein in skin resident cells (2012)
- IL-18 is an important mediator involved in chronic inflammatory conditions such as cutaneous lupus erythematosus, psoriasis and chronic eczema. An imbalance between IL-18 and its endogenous antagonist IL-18 binding protein (BP) may account for increased IL-18 activity. IL-27 is a cytokine with dual function displaying pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. Here we provide evidence for a yet not described anti-inflammatory mode of action on skin resident cells. Human keratinocytes and surprisingly also fibroblasts (which do not produce any IL-18) show a robust, dose-dependent and highly inducible mRNA expression and secretion of IL-18BP upon IL-27 stimulation. Other IL-12 family members failed to induce IL-18BP. The production of IL-18BP peaked between 48–72 h after stimulation and was sustained for up to 96 h. Investigation of the signalling pathway showed that IL-27 activates STAT1 in human keratinocytes and that a proximal GAS site at the IL-18BP promoter is of importance for the functional activity of IL-27. The data are in support of a significant anti-inflammatory effect of IL-27 on skin resident cells. An important novel property of IL-27 in skin pathobiology may be to counter-regulate IL-18 activities by acting on keratinocytes and importantly also on dermal fibroblasts.