Year of publication
- Charged-particle exclusive analysis of central Ar + KCl and Ar + Pb reactions at 1.8 and 0.8 GeV/nucleon (1983)
- An event by event analysis is carried out for all charged particles observed in central collisions of 40Ar + KCl and 40Ar + Pb at 1.808 and 0.772 GeV/nucleon, respectively. Total transverse energy is used for impact parameter selection within the central trigger condition. The central Ar + KCl reaction exhibits a forward-backward oriented momentum flux. The flux distribution of the most central Ar + Pb events is approximately isotropic in the fireball center of mass.
- Compression effects in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions (1982)
- The negative-pion multiplicity is measured for central collisions of 40Ar with KCl at eight energies from 0.36 to 1.8 GeV/nucleon and for 4He on KCl and 40Ar on BaI2 at 977 and 772 MeV/nucleon, respectively. A systematic discrepancy with a cascade-model calculation which fits proton- and pion-nucleus cross sections but omits potential-energy effects is used to derive the energy going into bulk compression of the system. A value of the incompressibility constant of K=240 MeV is extracted in a parabolic form of the nuclear-matter equation of state.
- Stopping power and collective flow of nuclear matter in the reaction Ar+Pb at 0.8 GeV/u (1983)
- Charged-particle exclusive data for Ar+Pb collisions at 0.772 GeV/u are analyzed in terms of collective variables for the event shapes in momentum space. Semicentral collisions lead to sidewards flow whereas nearly head-on collisions have spherical shapes in the c.m. frame, resulting from complete stopping of projectile motion. The hydrodynamical model predictions agree qualitatively with the data whereas the standard cascade model disagrees, lacking in stopping power and collective flow.
- Lambda production near threshold in central nucleus-nucleus collisions (1981)
- Lambda 's produced in central collisions of 40Ar+KC1 at 1.8-GeV/u incident energy were detected in a streamer chamber by their charged-particle decay. For central collisions with impact parameters b<2.4 fm the Lambda production cross section is 7.6±2.2 mb. A calculation in which Lambda production occurs in the early stage of the collision qualitatively reproduces the results but underestimates the transverse momenta. An average Lambda polarization of -0.10±0.05 is observed. PACS numbers: 25.70 Bc
- Charged particle spectra in central S+S collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon (1994)
- The transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of negative hadrons and participant protons have been measured for central 32S+ 32S collisions at plab=200 GeV/c per nucleon. The proton mean rapidity shift < Delta y>~1.6 and mean transverse momentum <pT>~0.6 GeV/c are much higher than in pp or peripheral AA collisions and indicate an increase in the nuclear stopping power. All pT spectra exhibit similar source temperatures. Including previous results for K0s Lambda , and Lambda -bar, we account for all important contributions to particle production.
- Development of fragmented low-Z ion beams for the NA61 fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS (2011)
- The NA61 experiment, aims to study the properties of the onset of deconfinement at low SPS energies and to find signatures of the critical point of strongly interacting matter. A broad range in T-μB phase diagram will be covered by performing an energy (13A-158A GeV/c) and system size (p+p, Be+Be, Ar+Ca, Xe+La) scan. In a first phase, fragmented ion beams of 7Be or 11C produced as secondaries with the same momentum per nucleon when the incident primary Pb-ion beam hits a thin Be target will be used. The H2 beam line that transports the beam to the experiment acts as a double spectrometer which combined with a new thin target (degrader) where fragments loose energy proportional to the square of their charge allows the separation of the wanted A/Z fragments. Thin scintillators and TOF measurement for the low energy points are used as particle identification devices. In this paper results from the first test of the fragmented ion beam done in 2010 will be presented showing that a pure Be beam can be obtained satisfying the needs of the experiment.
- Collective motion in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 800 MeV/nucleon (1988)
- Semicentral Ar+KCl, La+La, and Ar+Pb collisions at 800 MeV/nucleon were studied using a streamer chamber. The results are analyzed in the framework of the transverse momentum analysis and in terms of the average sphericity matrix. A critical examination of the analysis procedures, both experimental and theoretical, is given. New procedures are described to account for overall momentum conservation in the reaction, and to correct for azimuthal variations in the detection efficiency. Average transverse momenta per nucleon in the reaction plane are presented for deuterons emitted in the forward hemisphere, as these provide the most reliable information. A Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck calculation with a stiff equation of state gives a good fit to the momenta in the Ar+Pb reaction. Flow effects parametrized further using the sphericity tensor are found stronger than in the cascade model and consistently weaker than predicted by hydrodynamics. Parameters from the sphericity tensor exhibit a larger variation as a function of multiplicity than do the average momenta per nucleon.
- Pion and proton "temperatures" in relativistic heavy-ion reactions (1984)
- Pion and proton production are measured to investigate thermal equilibrium in central collisions of 40Ar+KCl at 1.8 GeV/nucleon. The bulk of the pion yield is isotropic in the c.m. system, with an apparent temperature of 58±3 MeV, much lower than the 118±2 MeV of the protons. It is shown that the low pion "temperature" can be explained by the decay kinematics of delta resonances in thermal equilibrium. A (5±1)% component in the pion spectrum is, however, found to have a temperature of 110±10 MeV. The effect on the spectra of possible contributions from collective radial flow is discussed.
- Azimuthally anisotropic emission of pions in symmetric heavy-ion collisions (1993)
- Triple differential cross sections d3 sigma /dp3 for charged pions produced in symmetric heavy-ion collisions were measured with the KaoS magnetic spectrometer at the heavy-ion synchrotron facility SIS at GSI. The correlations between the momentum vectors of charged pions and the reaction plane in 197Au+197Au collisions at an incident energy of 1 GeV/nucleon were determined. We observe, for the first time, an azimuthally anisotropic distribution of pions, with enhanced emission perpendicular to the reaction plane. The anisotropy is most pronounced for pions of high transverse momentum in semicentral collisions.